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126 Cards in this Set

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Mesopotamia

-"The Fertile Crescent"/Land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers/Cradle of Civilization


-Cradle of architecture


-Where the Neolithic Revolution first occured


-Where humans first used the plow and the wheel and canals


-gave birth to 3 of the world's great modern faiths: Christianity, Judaism and Islam


-polytheistic; worship mostly nature gods




-THE FIRST URBAN PLANNERS: sun dried mud brick were the basic bldg blocks




-Predominant art forms: bas relief scuplture and architecture

Bas relief sculpture in Mesopotamia: What were some of the main themes?

- Military exploits


- King's personal courage during hunting expeditions

Ziggurat

A stepped pyramid-shaped tower. Built at immense heights, reflecting the belief that the gods dwelled on high.




Stairways represented the bridge between the heavens and the earth

SUMER

-1st great Mesopotamian civ



-Was not a unified nation. Established city-states.


-These city states were under the protection of different Mesopotamian deities with Sumerian rulers as their representatives on earth.


-Rulers and priests directed all communal activities: canal construction, crop collection, food distribution.


-Specialization of labor= hallmark of the first complex urban societies


-Individual activities became institutionalized


-Developed a sense of culture and identity




-Invented writing


-records of administrative acts and commercial transactions


-carved PICTOGRAPHS (simplified pictures standing for words) first w stylus on clay tablets ---> simplified to wedge shaped CUNEIFORM writing


-Epic of Gilgamesh is in cuneiform: About legendary Uruk king and slayer of monster Huwawa




-Trade essential bc despite fertile soil, lacked natural resources like metal, stone and wood
-First culture to tell coherent stories = PICTORAL NARRATION

Significance of the location of Sumerian temples
Temples were at the center of the Sumerian city states, reflecting the central role of the gods in their daily life

stele

carved stone slab set up to commemorate:


-historical event


-mark a grave


WHITE TEMPLE, URUK




-The main temple to each state's chief god formed the city's monumental nucleus.


-It was where priests + scribes carried on official administrative commercial business AND oversaw all religious functions




-Superstructure: formed with mudbricks


-The construction of monumental shrines = Sumerian desire to provide a grandiose setting for worship of its deities


-Stands atop a high platform known as a ziggurat


-Stairway leads to the top but does not end in any of the doorways, requiring 2-3 angular changes in direction. = BENT AXIS PLAN


-Corners oriented to cardinal points of compass


-Probably dedicated to Anu, sky god, chief deity of Sumerians


-Only imp people like priests and members of the leading community accommodated.


-Central hall=Cella= divinity's room with stepped altar. Where deities were believed to appear.






-Sumerian notion of god residing in a world above humans is central to most of the world's religions. This is why temples were elevated on giant platforms reaching toward the sky


FEMALE HEAD (INANNA?)


Inanna=most imp female deity in all periods of Mesopotamian history


-Imported marble @ great cost


-Slight naturalism = soft modeling of the cheeks and mouth


-Colored shell/stone once in what is now the deep recesses of eyebrows and eyes. Gold leaf wig. Bright coloration of eyes, brows, and hair
maybe.

WARKA VASE


-material: alabaster


-first great work of narrative relief sculpture known


-found within the Inanna temple complex


-depicts religious festival in honor of goddess


-divided into registers with figures standing in a common ground line= norm for narrative art for a long time




LOWEST BAND:


-wheat and other crops above wavy line representing water




2ND LOWEST BAND:


-ewes and rams moving from left to right


-strict profile


-agri and animal husbandry= staples of Sumerian economy


-alternating male and female animals = symbol of fertility




^ Underscoring that Inanna had blessed Uruk's inhabitants with good crops and increased herds.




Central band:


-Procession of naked men carrying baskets and jars overflowing with the earth's abundance


- they'll present them to the goddess as votive offerings (gift of gratitude to a deity)


-no overlapping of figures


-composite view/conceptual representation = large staring frontal eyes in profile heads


(as opposed to optical representation where ppl are portrayed from a fixed point). wanted to provide info, not capture realistic.




UPPERMOST BAND:


-tallest band


-female figure with a tall horned headdress


-two large poles next to her - sign of the goddess Inanna


-nude male figure brings her a large vessel brimming with offerings to be deposited in the goddess's shrine.


-far right and barely visible= partially preserved clothed man aka PRIEST KING




-heights of the registers and sizes of the figures demonstrates the use of HIERARCHY OF SCALE and the greater importance of the goddess and the priest king




-art historians interpret this as the the symbolic marriage between the priest king + goddess which...


-ensure her continued good will


-reaffirm her exalted position in society

STELE OF VULTURES


-Limestone


-theme: warfare


-labelled historical narrative with cuneiform inscriptions filling almost every blank space


-celebrating victory of Eannatum the ensi of Lagash over the city state of Umma


-reliefs on both sides




TOP


-Eannatum leading an infantry batallion


-foot soldiers protect themselves by forming a wall of shields


-trampling enemies as they advance



BOTTOM


-Eannatum attacking from a war chariot




HIERARCHY OF SCALE: Eannatum is the biggest figure (along with Ningirsu who appears on the other side)


= fearless general who paves the way for his army






This was an early effort to record historical narratives in relief through both words and pictures



ESHUNNA/TELL ASMAR/URNANSHE STATUETTES


-Votive figures


-soft gypsum + inlaid with shell and black limestone


-sizes vary


-could be seated/standing


-represent MORTALS not DEITIES


-hands folded in front of their chests in gesture of prayer/holding libations


-men wear belts, fringed skirts, have beards and shoulder length hair


-women wear robes with the right shoulder bare


-many bear inscriptions w the name of the donor/god/specific prayers


-appear in the CELLA/"waiting room"


-simple forms= cones and cylinders.


-bearing names of individuals


-inlaid OVERSIZED EYES SYMBOLIZE THE ETERNAL WAKEFULNESS NECESSARY TO FULFILL MOST OF THEIR DUTY


-tiny hands



STANDARD OF UR

-wooden box, lapis lazuli, shell, red limestone


-mosaic-like technique


-excavated from Royal Cemetery of Ur


-uncertain function


-Celebrates two principle roles of the Sumerian ruler:


1. mighty warrior who defeats enemies of his city state


2. chief administrator who, with the blessing of the gods, assures the bountifulness of the land in peacetime.


-War Side and Peace Side
-figures are in composite view
-the sides could be completely independent of each other, OR the peace side could be a celebration after the victory depicted on the war side.


-Example of PICTORAL NARRATION


-Divided into 3 successive friezes that read from left to right, bottom to top.


figures are all on a common ground line as opposed to being haphazardly placed (like cave paintings). friezes decorated by beautiful pieces of shell


-HIERARCHY OF SCALE: size of figures + most important, powerful and wealthiest figures placed at the topmost registers and common laborers down at the bottom


STANDARD OF UR: WAR SIDE


-rendering of warfare and violence




BOTTOM REGISTER


-four chariots that seem to be pulled by four male donkeys. drivers + warriors


-perhaps enemies being trampled by horses


-naturalism; transition of horses from a walk to cantor to gallop




MIDDLE REGISTER


-a line of soldiers ready for battle


-ready for helmets


-sense of army, order, structure, real discipline: no overlapping, same view




TOP REGISTER


-king's head breaks a decorative border on the top


-on the left: chariot + soldiers
-on the right: other soldiers and attendants bringing to him the prisoners of war (stripped and bleeding)

STANDARD OF UR: PEACE SIDE




BOTTOM REGISTER


-laborers and animals bringing goods to a certain destination




MIDDLE REGISTER


-more clearly identified animals being brought to a certain destination




TOP REGISTER


-king-most important figure-largest; large enough to break the pictorial frame


-SECONDARY FIGURES who are seated around the king are smaller than the king but larger than the servants and entertainers who are standing


-^hierarchy showing the relative importance of the 3 levels of society


-size + diff clothing helps to identify him


-figures holding a cup=joining the king in some libation


-some sort of celebration going on = religious ceremony or other festivity



BULL HEADED HARP


-comes from a tomb


-resembles instrument depicted in the Standard of Ur


-bull's head fashioned of gold leaf caps sound box. its head and beard = lapis lazuli


-inlaid background of sound box= shell and red limestone




-uppermost panel: heroic figure embracing two man bulls. HERALDIC COMPOSITION:symmetrical on either side of a central figure




-two central panels: animals are in profile view




-lowest panel: hero's and scorpion man's body in composite view




-animals: dog wearing a dagger and carrying a laden table, lion bringing beverage service, ass playing the harp, jackal playing the zither, bear dancing or steadying the harp and the gazelle bearing goblets


-meaning of scenes unclear


-recurring theme both in art and literature of animals acting as people: Aesop's fables in ancient Greece, medieval bestiaries, Walt Disney's cartoon animal characters

Mesopotamian seals

-could be of stone, ivory and glass


-two types: flat stamp seals, cylinder seals




Cylinder seals


-sometimes have hole drilled around the center lengthwise and worn around neck


-prized possessions signifying high positions in society, sometimes carried into afterlife by


-MAIN FUNCTION=IDENTIFY DOCS AND PROTECT STORAGE JARS AND DOORS AGAINST UNAUTHORIZED OPENING


-they look like relief rolls and rolling them on wet clay makes raised impressions


-predated writing, used pictographs, then cuneiform

-MINIATURE RELIEFS


-info about Mesopotamian religion and society

BANQUET SCENE, cylinder seal (left) and modern impression (right)




-found in tomb of Puabi


-upper zone: woman-probably Puabi and man drink from beakers attended by servants


-lower zone: male attendants serve two more seated men


-despite diff medium, typical Sumerian figure types and compositional rules: figures are in composite view and seated figures are larger in size to emphasize their higher social standing

AKKAD

-Leader: Sargon ("true king") of Akkad


-intro of new concept: royal power based on unswerving loyalty to the king instead of city state


-Spoke Akkadian but used Sumerians' cuneiform characters for written docs




-Later leader: Naram Sin-Sargon's grandson


-saw governors as mere royal servants


-called himself "King of the Four Quarters" -ruler of the earth, akin to a God




-NEW CONCEPT OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHY



THE HEAD OF AN AKKADIAN RULER


-from Nineveh


-Example of Akkadian portraiture


-COPPER HOLLOW CAST SCULPTURE- oldest known monumental work of hollow cast sculpture


-embodies new concept of absolute monarchy


-signs of deliberate mutilation as a political statement: gouged-out eyes, broken lower part of beard, slashed ears


-despite mutilated state portrait still conveys king's majesty, dignity and authority


-masterful balancing of abstract patterning and naturalism
-sculptor carefully observed and located the Akkadian's distinctive features: profile of nose, long curly beard


-brilliantly communicated the differing textures of flesh and hair


-contrasting textures of mustache, beard and braided hair on top of head


-coiffure's triangles, lozenges and overlapping disks of hair = artist's attention to formal pattern




VICTORY STELE OF NARAM SIN

-also demonstrates the godlike sovereignty of the Akkadian Kings


-commemorates Akkadian ruler's defeat of the Lullubi


-Naram Sin leads his army up the slopes of a wooden mountain


- wounded enemies fall, flee, die, beg for mercy


-king stands alone, far taller than his men = HIERARCHY OF SCALE; treading on the bodies of two fallen Lullubi


-Horned helmet= signifies divinty for Akkadians; scaling the mountains, ascending the ladder to heavens (same conceit that lies as ziggurats); stars that shine on his triumph= FIRST TIME KING APPEARS AS A GOD IN MESOPOTAMIAN ART; figures look up at him




-troops follow behind him in orderly files = discipline and organization of the kings forces
-vs. enemies who are in a great variety of postures + disarray, falling, defeated and wounded = CHAOS




-symbolic language


-composite view


-but new kind of composition: a more dynamic, diagonal ground line; landscape setting for narrative instead of standard Mesopotamian registers


-relief sculpture



ENHEDUANNA'S VOTIVE DISK


-Alabastar


-Daughter of King Sargon+ priestess of moon god Nanna
-oldest recorded poet in world history


-Enheduanna is the tallest figure of in the votive disk, which she dedicated to NANNA THE MOON GOD= HIERARCHY OF SCALE


-4 figures approaching ziggurat


-traditional frieze format

NEO SUMERIA/THIRD DYNASTY OF UR

-ZIGURRATS


-GUDEA OF LAGASH

ZIGGURAT OF UR


-Neo-Sumerian monument


-Sacred Space


-Massive mud-brick base


-One of the largest ziggurats in Mesopotamia


-Bent axis plan


-Three ramplike stairways, hundred steps each; bridge between heavens and earth; humankind and divinity


-Cella



GUDEA SEATED


-Gudea = ensi of lagash; central figure of Gudea of Lagash; many portraits survive


-hands clasped=in gesture of prayer


-in his statues, he's sometimes standing, seated, hands clasped, head shaven, brimmed sheepskin hat, in a long garment with one arm exposed; youthful face with large, patterned eyebrows that frame his wide-open eyes; bearing inscriptions to the messages of the Sumerian gods


-Gudea was zealous in granting the gods their due; his statues are a testimony to his piety, wealth and pride


-Built many temples and placed statues of himself in them; inscriptions on the seated Gudea= plan of a temple on the tablet on his lap


-DIORITE= rare and costly stone

GUDEA STANDING


-Gudea was a powerful ruler


-but he rejected the regal trappings of the Sargon of Akkad and returned to the Sumerian model of the ruler as an agent of the gods


-follow the tradition of the Sumerian votive figures= Eshuanna and Mari statuettes


-large chest= god-given fullness of life; muscular arms=god-given strength; large eyes= gaze perpetually fixed on the gods




-this one is diff from the rest


-holds a jar overflowing into two streams on both sides of his cloak; fish swim in the coarsing water. Overflowing vessels in Mesopotamian art symbolize the prosperity gods bring


-ONLY INSTANCE IN WHICH MESOPOTAMIAN RULER APPEARS AS SOURCE OF PROSPERITY WHO ISNT A GOD


-made of CALCITE instead of DIORITE like other gudea statues



Babylon



-Hammurabi was another important ruler= established law codes, CENTRALIZED MESOPOTAMIAN GOVERNMENT (most renowned king in Mesopotamian history)





STELE WITH THE LAWS OF HAMMURABI


-Black basalt stele


-High relief at the top


-Hammurabi in the presence of Shamash the sun god


-Hammurabi raises hand in respect


-God hands him rod and ring that symbolize authority to govern and judge


-attempt at/exploring foreshortening=god's beard is a series of diagonal, not horizontal lines, suggesting its recession from the picture plane. Shamash's throne is also depicted at an angle


- composite view again

LION GATE


-Hattusa-heavily fortified capital of the Hittites


-Hittites toppled Babylon

BEAKER WITH ANIMAL DECORATION


-example of Elamite pottery



STATUE OF QUEEN NAPIR ASU


-life size


-BRONZE AND COPPER; 3000+ pounds


-wife of a powerful ELAMITE king


-queen wished her portrait to be a permanent, immovable votive offering


-votive figure tradition dating back to Eshunna figurines


-cylindrical volume=mesopotamian instinct


-Sumerian influence= tight silhouette, strict frontality, firmly-crossed hands; RIGID CONVENTIONS OF FORM AND POSE




FEATURES BASED ON CLOSE OBSERVATION:


-softness of arm n bust


-grace + elegance of long-fingered hands


-supple blend of wrist, wing, bracelets


-patterned fabric of gown




-Rep portrait of the ideal king


-hands crossed could allude to fertility and peaceful dynastic succession

Assyria

-ruled an extensive empire


-Assyrian kings cultivated an image of themselves as merciless to anyone who dared oppose them but forgiving to those who submitted to their will


-structured palaces as fortified citadels


-palace walls: kings commissioned extensive mural reliefs and paintings that exalt their power and authority


PALACE/CITADEL OF SARGON II


-Above Nineveh


-Assyria


-25 acres
-stood on 50 foot high man made mound
-Towering above the elevated palace was a ziggurat


-colossal limestone man-headed bull monsters called Lamassu guarded the gates of the palace


LAMASSU


-man headed winged bulls


-limestone


-from citadel of Sargon II


-partly sculptures in the round, party high reliefs


-front view: animal appears at rest


-side view: appears in motion


- 5 legs


-conceptual rep vs optical



Ashurnasirpal's palace

Boasted the earliest and most extensive cycles of Assyrian relief sculptures. Every relief bore an inscription naming the Assyrian king and describing his accomplishments



ASHURNASIRPAL II WITH ATTENDANTS AND SOLDIER


-Kalhu Palace


-Depiction of King Ashurnasirpal and his retinue paying homage to the Gods


-glazed brick (more durable than mudbrick)


-Ashurnasirpal (TALLEST= HOS) holding cup


-will make libation to Assyrian gods


-color palette limited to brown and yellow


-





ASSYRIAN ARCHERS PURSUING ENEMIES




-Ashurnasirpal II's archers driving the enemy into the Euphrates river


-Artists goal=tell the story clearly and economically : compressed distances and enlarged human actors so they would stand out from their environment


-fort defenders too small to walk into its archway


-different viewpoints combined in the same frame


-figures are composites of frontal and profile views


-spectator views river from above


-men, trees and fort viewed from the side


-archer's bowstrings are in front of their bodies but behind their heads in order not to hide their faces


-adjustments for clarity, liberties with optical reality


-vivid and easily legible retelling of a decisive moment in the king's victorious campaign = artist's primary goal



ASHURBANIPAL HUNTING LIONS




-in addition to ceremonial and battle scenes, the hunt was a common subject of Assyrian palace reliefs


-they viewed hunting and killing lions as mainly royal virtues on a par with victory in warfare


-artist glorified the king by showing the men pitted against and repeatedly besting the lion=king of beasts


THE DYING LIONESS


-Nineveh


-Bas relief scuplture: one of the predominant art forms in Mesopotamia.


-king's personal courage during hunting expeditions is a favorite theme in Mesopotamian bas reliefs


-wounded beast, paralyzed by arrows.


-flattened ears + staining muscles convincingly convey death throes

Neo-Babylonia

-"navel of the world" - King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon

ISHTAR GATE/HANGING GARDENS


-Blue-glazed bricks


-erected by King Nebucchadnezzar


-large arcuated (arch-shaped) opening flanked by towers


-features reliefs of animals, real and imaginary


-landscape architecture


-one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world


TOWER OF BABEL


-Neo-Babylon


-Tallest ziggurat of all: 270 ft high


-Symbol of human ambition


-Biblical writers saw this as emblem of man's arrogance in trying to reach heaven


-Stack of 8 stepped towers, solid brass gates, 120 lions in brightly colored, glazed tiles that lead to the gate


-spiral stairway winds around exterior, mounting to summit


-inner sanctuary of summit is where their god slept

PERSIA

-Cyrus of Persia captured Babylon in the 6th century


-Cyrus was the founder of the Achaemenid Dynasty


-Achaemenid Empire ended with the death of Darius III after his defeat at the hands of Alex the Great



PERSEPOLIS





-Most important source of knowledge about Persian art and architecture=ceremonial and administrative complex of the citadel here

-built by Cyrus's successors Darius I and Xerxes


-on a high plateau, heavily fortified complex


-Alex the Gr8 razed this site to symbolize the destruction of the Persian imperial power




-Gateway: monumental, called Gate of All Lands = referring to the harmony of the different peoples in the vast Persian Empire. Assyrian-inspired man-headed winged bulls flanked the entrance.




-Broad ceremonial stairways provided access to the platform and the immense royal APADANA=AUDIENCE HALL:


consisted of 36 stone columns: tall bases, 57 ft shafts, enormous capitals and double vertical volutes topped by animal protomes


animals include eagle-headed winged lions, man headed bulls, bulls and lions


-architect must have wanted to suggest that the Persian king had captured the fiercest animals and monsters to hold up the roof of his palace




-animal protomes popular motif in tableware as well


-gold rython (conical pouring vessel) in the form of winged lion= example of ostentatious wealth on display in Persian palaces




-reliefs decorating walls and staircases leading to the apadana = processions of royal guards, nobles, dignitaries, representatives from 23 subject nations each wearing a characteristic costume and carrying a regional gift for the conqueror; subtly modeled surfaces, crisply chiseled details; Persian style compared to Assyrian for reliefs = more rounded forms, projecting more from the bg; drapery= Archaic Greek sculpture




-PERSIAN ART TESITIFIES TO THE ACTIVE EXCHANGE OF IDEAS AND ARTISTS AMONG ALL CIVILIZATIONS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN, MESOPOTAMIA AND PERSIA


PALACE OF SHAPUR I/ SASANIAN EMPIRE


-Sasanians forced Romans and Greeks out of Asia after capturing Persepolis


-First Sasanian king ARTAXERXES founded the New Persian Empire after defeating Parthinians; capital= Ctesiphon




-Shapur I - son and successor of Artaxerxes


-Built palace at Ctesiphon


-central feature=iwan or brick audience hall covered by a 100 ft tall vault


-horizontal bands made up of blind arcades (arches without openings) divide the facade to the left and right of the iwan

TRIUMPH OF SHAPUR I

-Bishapur, Iran


-immortalized his triumph in a series of reliefs over Romans

Mesopotamian dates to know

Sumer-3000 BCE


Babylon-1900 BCE


Persian-539 BCE

Ancient Egypt

-World's first large-scale unified state for 3 millennia.


-Backbone: Nile river- allows for rich soil; world's longest river


-Manetho: described dynasties and succession of pharaohs but his chronology was inaccurate


-Characteristics of Egyptian art: built on rigid formulas, very static



Focuses:


-Pursuit of permanence


-Immortality (believed that the pharaoh's Ka/spirit is immortal)


-Good afterlife



-Importance of Egyptian tombs:


-essentially time capsules of info about the daily life of its occupant.


-Much of what we know about ancient Egypt comes from surviving tombs


Innovations:


-literature, med science, higher math


-HIEROGLYPHICS.


Emergence of Egyptology (reconstructing Egyptian civilization from surviving antiquities) led to the study of the Rosetta stone, which had the same inscription in 3 different languages (greek, demotic-late Egyptian and heiroglyphic), which helped decode hieroglyphics.




Predynastic Egypt

Divided into


Upper= Southern Egypt= promoting hunting


Lower=Northern Egypt= promoting agri and animal husbandry

HIERAKONPOLIS TOMB


-bore the most extensive series of early Egyptian mural paintings




PALETTE OF NARMER




-slate palette


-earliest preserved Egyptian artwork


-Narmer=pharaoh of the first of 31 dynasties in Egypt


-COMMEMORATING THE UNIFICATION OF THE TWO PREVIOUSLY INDEPENDENT KINGDOMS OF UPPER AND LOWER EGYPT WHICH MARKED THE END OF THE PREDYNASTIC PERIOD






Top:


-two cow heads w/ woman's face: goddess Hathor, divine mother of all pharaohs or sky goddess Bat


-HIEROGLYPH between the heads giving Narmer's name around a frame representing royal palace




CENTER:


-Narmer dominates the palette-larger than everyone else= divine status=HOS


-bowling-pin shaped crown of Upper Egypt-official carrying his sandals is smaller in size-composite of profile and frontal-effortlessly slays unarmed enemy


-STANDARD EGYPTIAN PICTORAL FORMULA OF THE INEVITABLE TRIUMPH OF EGYPTIAN GOD-KINGS OVER ENEMIES


-falcon w human arms and Narmer's protector Horus




BELOW:


-two fallen enemies




OTHER SIDE:


-intertwined elongated necks of animals = pictoral reference to unification of Egypt


- Narmer wears crown of LOWER egypt this time again towering over everyone


-reviews beheaded bodies of enemy


-dead seen from above- perspective


-Narmer's superhuman strength is symbolized by bull in lowest band knocking down a rebellious city




-used preferred compositional scheme of Mesopotamian art: narrative told through registers that also served as a ground line for the figures in a neat and orderly way




-Main goal of Egyptian artist was not to tell a story but CHARACTERIZE THE PHARAOH AS SUPREME AND PROTECTED BY THE GODS, ISOLATED FROM AND LARGER THAN ALL ORDINARY MEN, SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR THE TRIUMPH OVER THE ENEMY




-COMMEMORATIVE RATHER THAN FUNERARY IN NATURE = making it exceptional in Egyptian art

What was ancient Egyptian society obsessed with?

Immortality


+ assuring a comfortable afterlife for their pharaohs, who were considered gods.



That's why Egyptian art remained unchanged for 3k years.

embalming

preserving human remains by treating them to forestall decomposition

Egyptian tombs

-Egyptians believed that the pharaohs' soul/Ka is immortal


-Their tombs were stocked with earthly delights for the Ka to perpetually enjoy.


-wall paintings, hieroglyphics, portrait statues (alternative dwelling place for ka in case the mummy deteriorated)
-also tried to ensure a durable receptacle for the deceased's spirit by perfecting the science of embalming.

Mastaba

-Standard tomb type for early Egypt; Arabic for "bench"


-rectangular stone structure with sloping sides erected over an underground burial chamber


-burial chamber


-chapel with false door through which the ka would join the world of the living and partake in meals placed in an offering table


-Serab: a small room housing a statue of the deceased



STEPPED PYRAMID OF DJOSER


-By Imhotep= First recorded artist.


-first truly grandoise royal tomb


-series of mastabas stacked on top of one another with the corners facing cardinal points of a compass


-Imhotep could have perceived this as a ladder to the heavens


-function: protect the mummified king and his possessions + symbolize his absolute and godlike power


-enclosed by rectangular wall of limestone


-funerary temples associated with the djoser pyramid are on the north side, facing the stars of the northern sky

DETAIL OF FACADE OF NORTH PALACE OF THE MORTUARY PRECINCT OF DJOSER




-EARLIEST KNOWN STONE COLUMNS IN THE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE


-attached to the walls; not freestanding (prev. used plant stems and mats on the walls of bldgs)


-capitals take form of papyrus blossoms


-shafts resemble papyrus stalks



OLD KINGDOM EGYPT

-Pharoahs amassed great wealth, expended it on grandiose architectural projects AKA pyramids of Gizeh



PYRAMIDS OF GIZEH


-SAQARRA


-One of the 7 wonders of the ancient world


-Served as tombs of 4th Dynasty pharaohs Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure


-symbols of the sun; THE PHARAOH USES ITS RAYS AS A LADDER TO ASCEND TO THE HEAVENS


-four sides oriented to the cardinal points of a compass


-funerary temples associated with the Gizeh pyramids are on the east side, underscoring the rising sun and their connection with sun god Re


-evolution from mastaba to classic pyramid form


-new tomb shape influenced by Heliopolis, seat of powerful cult of Re, whose emblem was a pyramidal stone (the ben ben)




-Pyramidal complex included:


the pharaoh's burial chamber


mortuary temple-adjoining the pyramid on the E side- where priests made offerings to the god-king, stored food, cloth, ceremonial vessels


roofed causeway leading to the mortuary temple


valley temple




NOT ONLY KING'S TOMB AND TEMPLE BUT ALSO HIS PALACE IN THE AFTERLIFE.



THE GREAT SPHINX


-sandstone


-largest statue of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Persia


-UREAUS- cobra headdress


-sphinx=lion with human head = associated with the sun god and thus an important image of the pharaoh


-composite form suggests the combination of human intelligence with the fearsome strength and authority of the king of beasts.


THE FOWLING SCENE/NEBAMUN HUNTING FOWL


-fresco seco = dry plaster


-tomb of Nebamun


-Egyptians followed a rigid formula for representing the human figure
-composite view: front view of the eye and shoulders and profile view of the head, arms


and leg


-Hierarchy of scale= size indicating rank; pharaohs represented as giants towering over pigmy-size servants


-spare, broad shouldered, narrow hipped figure wears a headdress and a kilt, arms at the side and one leg advanced.

Egyptian statues were usually made of what and why?




Describe the poses of Egyptian statues.

-Granite and diorite


-To last eternally


- They had few projecting, breakable parts




-Always frontal


-bisymmetrical


-arms close to the torso


-feet very flat


-human anatomy was usually an approximation.


-Motionless and impassive (THEY LOOK TIMELESS)


PRINCE RAHOTEP AND WIFE NOFRET


-Motionless, impassive


-Bisymmetrical


-Arms around torso


-Heavily stylized


-Reliefs?

Pharaoh Akhenaten

-Nefertiti's husband who encouraged a temporary loosening of ancient Egyptian artistic conventions and more naturalistic representations of humans


QUEEN NEFERTITI


- By THUTMOSE


-Bust


-demonstrates the temporary loosening of artistic conventions


-more naturalistic representation


HEAD OF RAMSES II, MUMMY


- Gone through elaborate chemical treatment


-Hair, dried skin and teeth still intact.


MASK OF KING TUT




-Became the most celebrated pharaoh of all


-His tomb was discovered in near-original condition.


-"Everywhere the glint of gold"


-Our knowledge of the magnificence of a pharaoh's regalia comes from Tut's tomb.


-Prevailing decorative motif: GOLD= gold walls, gilded throne, gold walls, 6'2" solid gold coffin, solid beaten-gold death mask even within the final coffin

Ancient Greece

Their Golden Age


-resulted in unparalleled levels of excellence in art, architecture, poetry, drama, philosophy, gov't, law, logic, history and math


- "THE AGE OF PERICLES" - after Athenian ruler who championed democracy and free thought




CENTRAL CONCEPTS:


-rational inquiry


-harmony, order, clarity of thought


-man's dignity and worth


-Greek philosophy summed up in the words of Portagoras: "Man is the measure of all things".


-man's dignity and worth= central concepts




PRINCIPLE MOTIF OF GREEK ART: human figures. respect for balance, harmony, order, clarity of thought


Sought synthesis of the two poles of human behavior= passion and reason = when portraying humans

Greek Artists

-Exekias
-Phidias-MOST FAMOUS SCULPTOR


-Polykleitos


-Praxiteles

Phidias

-most famous Athenian sculptor


-overseer of Parthenon statuary


-first used drapery to reveal body

Polykleitos

-rival of Phidias


-Wrote book on proportion and contropposto


-most celebrated work: colossal gold and ivory statue of Hera at Argos

Praxiteles

-Athenian sculptor famous for first entirely nude Aphrodite statue.


-introduced more sensual, natural concept of physical beauty

Greek painitings

-Artists achieved a breakthrough in realistic trompe l'oeil effects


-Unfortunately none of those paintings survive

Vase painting

-Told stories about gods and heroes of Greek myths and contemporary subjects like warfare and drinking parties.


-Earliest design = Geometric style


-Archaic style= Black figure and red figure techniques


-IMPORTANT VASE PAINTER= EXEKIAS


DIONYSUS IN A SAILBOAT


-By Exekias
-Archaic period


-Earliest instance of an object (the sail) being presented realistically instead of being stylized


YOUTH SINGING AND PLAYING THE KITHARA


-Amphora= two-handled vessel


-Red figure technique



Greek Sculpture

- Greeks invented the nude in art


- Ideal proportions of their statues represented the perfection of both body and mind.


-Sought synthesis of the two poles of human behavior= passion and reason = when portraying humans
-Male nudity always acceptable in sculpture


-Female representation evolved from fully clothed to sensually nude
- Clinging folds of drapery = united figure in swirling rhythm of movement


-CONTRAPPOSTO



NIKE OF SAMOTHRACE




-Nike=winged victory


-ideal proportions of classical statues + greek philosophy of humanism


- Clinging folds of drapery = united figure in swirling rhythm of movement

Greek Architecture

-Highly influential


-Treated as sculpture= built with the same rules of symmetry and ideal proportions


- Most common locations for sculpture: triangular pediments and horizontal frieze


THE PARTHENON




-by Iktinos and Kallikrates


-brilliant white marble


-Greeks aimed it to be the ultimate expression of Athens' grandeur


-Crowns the Acropolis even in ruins


-GREEK COLUMNS ARE MADE FROM DRUMS (as opposed to Roman ones)




-Departure from straight lines: columns curve slightly inward


-ENTASIS


-Entablature and stepped platform are slightly arched
-These give the illusion of upward thrust and solid support for the central mass.


-mortarless --> destroyed in 1687


EL CASTILLO, CHICHEN ITZA


-Mayan STEPPED pyramids of Mexico's Yucatan peninsula


-Another example of the existence of pyramids over different cultures in different times.


I.M PEI'S GLASS PYRAMID ENTRANCE TO THE LOUVRE, PARIS




- the pyramid shape recurs throughout history and in diverse cultures



DAVID

- by MICHAELANGELO


-influenced by Classical Greek sculpture




CAPITOL OF VIRGINIA


-By Thomas Jefferson




Influence:


-Greek Parthenon


-Roman Pantheon


THE AGE OF BRONZE


-by RODIN


-Influenced by Classical Greek sculpture


CLOS PEGASE


-by Michael Graves


-Post Modern revival of Classical elements like columns and arcades


PYRAMIDS OF GIZA


-Old Kingdom Egypt


GREAT SPHINX


-To guard the pharaohs


-Sandstone




SEATED SCRIBE


-symmetrical but a realistic representation


-yogic pose, on the ground


-painted limestone: texture


-large football eyes: wisdom + awareness. Stylized but symbolic.






TI WATCHING A HIPPOPOTAMUS HUNT


-Canon of proportions: formulaic way of representing the human body


-Control over nature


EQUESTRIAN STATUE OF MARCUS AURELIUS


-control over nature


THE SNAKE GODDESS


-control over nature


-note material: Faience = glazed ceramic







MENKAURE AND HIS WIFE


-counts as relief


FRAGMENTARY HEAD OF SENUSRET III


-Middle Kingdom Egypt


-Demonstrates the temporary naturalism that dominates Egyptian art


-Not impassive


ROCK CUT TOMBS


ROCK CUT STATUES OF RAMSES II


-Temple of Ramses II


MALE HARP PLAYER


-Uniting form and object


-Simple geometric shapes



PALACE OF KNOSSOS


-courtyard in the center


-covers a vast area of land


-home of King Minos


-no fortification--> island





ST. PETERS!!!!!!!!!


LA PARISIENNE


-Minoan culture was diff from Greeks in terms of gender equality: women deemed equal to men in Minoa
-Fragment fresco
-Composite view: frontal eye but profile head


BULL LEAPING


-most important Minoan fresco


-MOVEMENT: delicate bodies; frivolous nature of culture
-Men: dark skinned; women: fair skinned


LANDSCAPE WITH SWALLOWS


-wet fresco


-similar to Gardenscape (2nd style Roman painting)
-Undulating lines: wavy lines

Minoan pottery


-Dev of potter's wheel


-Red figure/black figure techniques = Exekias


-terracotta

HARVESTER'S VASE


-more dynamic (vs. stiff/geometric/formulaic motif of pottery)
-Steatite


-underlying muscular and skeletal structure of the human body


HERCULES STRANGLING ANTAIOS


CORBEL-VAULTED GALLERY


-intentionally narrow to ensure that enemies with weapons were at a disadvantage


CITADEL OF TIRYNS


-much more compact
-fortified


-king's reception room=megaron- main feature of Mycenean palace


Three methods of spanning a passageway


A. Post and Lintel = ancient Greek norm
B. Corbelled arch= Mycenean
C. Round arch = Mesopotamia + Rome

LION GATE (Mycenae. Don't confuse with Hittites)


-Mortarless


-Post and lintel
-Corbelled arch around lions


-Lions=largest sculpture of prehistoric Agean Era


INTERIOR OF TREASURY OF ATREUS
-BEEHIVE TOMBS


-mortarless


FUNERARY MASK


-incising


-repousse


-One of the first attempts at life sized sculpture in Greece


VAPHEIO CUP

Kouros figures

-Transcendental gaze - otherworldly effect
-Life size votive figures
-


KRITIOS BOY


-first example of Severe style


-first example of contropposto



AVANT GARDE

Refers to art that questioned the status quo. Includes Realists, Impressionists and Post Impressionists- artists ahead of their time who transgressed the limits of established art forms. Art that challenges conventional ways of society- usually in response to social, political or economic issues.


Avant Garde artists rejected classical, academic, traditional approaches for exploration and experimentation of the premises of formal qualities of paintings, sculpture and other media. AKA "reaction" art

FAUVISM-Early 1900s

-FAUVES= wild beasts


-simplified design


-intense,bright colors and juxtaposition for expressive ends --> results in direct extreme reactions from the viewer


-liberating color from its deliberate functions (no outlining) and exploring the effects of different colors on emotion


-taking Van Gogh's and Gaugain's style to an extreme


-ABSTRACT COLOR ON REALISTIC SUBJECT MATTER


-strengthening the relationship between the painter, the painting and the viewer


-no limitations and codes to follow


-bold representation of subject matter's inner spirit through colors


-heavy and varied brushstrokes, rich surface textures, lively linear patterns


-CONTROLLED CHAOS= deliberate inhibitions


-short-lived movement but heavily influential as it introduced the STRUCTURAL, EXPRESSIVE AND AESTHETIC CAPABILITIES OF COLOR


-FRANCE


-Popular: Matisse, Derain

HENRI MATISSE

-Dominant figure of the Fauve group


-believed color could play a primary role in conveying meaning and serve as expression

WOMAN WITH THE HAT




-By Henri Matisse


-Depicted his wife Amelie


-conventional compositionally


-but seeming arbitrary colors and sketchiness of the forms startle the viewer


-entire image consists of splotches of color juxtaposed in ways the create jarring contrasts


-color became the formal element most responsible for pictoral coherence and the primary conveyor of meaning



LE BONHEUR DE VIVRE


-By Henri Matisse

RED ROOM/HARMONY IN RED




-By Henri Matisse


-subject: interior of comfortable, prosperous household w maid placing fruit and wine on the table


-but radically different from the traditional paintings of domestic interiors


-objects depicted in simplified and schematized fashion


-flattened out forms


-table and wall seems to merge because they are of the same color and identical patterning


-colors contrast richly and intensely


-process of overpainting= reveals importance of color for striking the right chord in the viewer


-first in green then blue then red finally felt right


-MATISSE BELIEVED THAT ARTISTS SHOULD CHOOSE COMPOSITIONS AND COLORS THAT EXPRESS THEIR FEELINGS

ANDRE DERAIN

Fauvist painter who worked closely with Matisse. Also worked with color to establish aesthetic and compositional coherence and to elicit emotional responses

GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM

-more violent but very similar to fauvism


-influenced by Fauvists: immediacy and boldness


-themes: human beings in their natural primitive surroundings; lack of finesse (delicacy)


-big, bold harsh brushstrokes


-spiritual painters


-no restraining


-gestures and movements

World War I

-The Great War


-1914


-resulted in the redrawing of the political map in Europe


-global conflict that altered the worldview of millions


-gave way to the Dada mvmt



Dada

-Advocates of this mvmt believed that reason and logic lead to the horrors of WWI


-concluded that the only way to salvation was through political anarchy, the irrational and intuitive


-Berlin: they took on an activist political edge


-pioneered a version of the collage (French word) called photomontage = pieces of magazine photographs that combined into deliberately antilogical compositions, lend itself well into the desire to exploit chance in the creation of art and anti-art


-Dadists: Hannah Hoch

Hannah Hoch

Dadaist who perfected the photomontage technique. She employed chaotic, contradictory and satiric compositions. Her works provided commentary on the redefinition of women's roles and the explosive growth of mass print media. Mistreated as a woman dadaist.

CUT WITH THE KITCHEN KNIFE DADA THROUGH THE LAST WEIMAR BEER BELLY CULTURAL EPOCH OF GERMANY




-Hannah Hoch


-incorporated commentary on redefinition of women's roles and the explosive growth of mass print media.


-political chaos = fragments and haphazard arrangement


-eclectic mixture of cutout photos at first glance


-but actually a closer inspection of the artist's careful selection and placement of photographs


-fragmentation defines culture at that moment


- key figures of the Weimar Republic appear on the upper right corner as "anti-Dada mvmt"


-fellow Dadaists appear among images of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin, aligning Dada with other revolutionary forces, labeling these figures "the great Dada world"


-photograph of herself in the lower right corner juxtaposed with a map to show which countries gave women voting rights = commentary on power both women and Dada had to destabilize society

THE DANCE


-Andre Derrain