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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Balance of the spiritual, appetitive, and rational
Any unsound mode of arguing, which appears to demand our conviction, and to be decisive of the question at hand, when in fairness it is not
4 examples of fallacies of reasoning

Eve Ate Canned Sardines
1. Example (not supported/relevant)
2. Analogies (are items compared similar)
3. Cause (can there be other causes)
4. Sign (relation does not mean correlation)
4 examples of fallacies of language

All vegetables look green
1. ambiguity (definition of words)
2. verbalism (being unnecessarily wordy)
3. loaded language (emotional words)
4. grammatical structure
fallacies created (by accident or design) by distortion, confusion, manipulation, or avoidance of the matters at issue or by substitution of matters not germane to the issue
First 3 examples of pseudoarguments

Oats Are Icky
1. Offering irrelevancy (beyond limits)
2. Arguing in a circle
3. Ignoring the issue (off topic)
Hierarchy of evidence (best to worst)
Books (recent)
Government documents
The threat or use of force
Communication intended to influence the acts, beliefs, attitudes, and values of others
the use of persuasion by a group in a sustained, organized campaign using multiple media for the purpose of influencing a mass audience
Critical thinking
the ability to analyze, criticize, and advocate ideas; to reason inductively and deductively; and to reach factual or judgmental conclusions based on sound inferences drawn from unambiguous statements of knowledge or belief
Applied debate
real decisions made; audience has the power to decide; has a purpose; can result in a change in status quo
Academic debate
Educational exercise; audience does not have the power to make decisions or change status quo
Status quo
the existing state of things; the present system
the back and forth asking and answering of questions
the conclusion we seek to establish by our arguments; the concise statement of the point we are making
Claims of fact
1. Functional: establish existence or non-existence, define, etc.
2. Temporal: past, present, future facts; related to time
Claims of value
Deals with good or bad, moral or immoral
Claims of policy
Introduces a plan to solve a specific problem
the grounds for an argument, usually in the form of evidence to establish a case
Evidence and reasoning that links the data and claim; justifies the move from grounds to claim
Who was Toulmin and why did he create his model?
A philosopher; because he believed that was the way people really reasoned
What does the Toulmin model look like?
reason given in communicative situations by people whose purpose is the justification of acts, beliefs, attitudes, and values
The degree of importance or impact attached to an issue; shows that a problem is quantitatively and qualitatively important AKA harms
Sources of the problem, barriers
1. structural: policies, laws, physical objects
2. attitudinal: way people think
3. existential: caused by status quo
The ability for a plan to work and reduce harms
Direct evidence
Proof of a fact without needing any other proof
Presumptive evidence
Evidence that shows the existence of a fact by proving other related facts
Primary evidence
Best evidence available; original/first-hand
Secondary evidence
Second-hand evidence; better evidence available
When the meaning of a phrase, word, or passage can be reasonable interpreted in two or more ways
the art of discovering ways to make truth seem more probable to an audience that isn't completely convinced
5 Cannons of Rhetoric

Irene Ate Some Moldy Dough
1. Invention: come up w/ an argument
2. arrangement: how argument organized
3. style: tone, use of stories or lists
4. memory: able to memorize
5. delivery: how you present yourself
4 Functions of rhetoric according to Aristotle
1. Prevents injustice
2. Educates
3. Makes us see all sides of a case
4. Means of defense
the process of inquiry and advocacy; the seeking of a reasoned judgment on a proposition
Good reasons
Reasons that are psychologically compelling for a given audience that make further inquiry unnecessary

influenced by: history, biography, culture, and/or character of audience
a predisposition favoring a given side in a dispute
a statement or judgment that identifies the central issue in a debate (fact, value, or policy)
AKA Harm; refers to problem existing in the status quo that requires remedy
Why was an olive tree economy important?
It required little work so people had lots of time during the year to think about philosophy and debate
Who was Kenneth Burke?
a literary scholar who created the dramatic pentad
Language is a human response to a situation
3 forms of persuasion
1. Unintended persuasion: when we hear a message not intended for us
2. coercion: threat of force
3. propaganda: opinion of a group
Order of Stock Issues Outline
Who is Walter Fisher?
creator of the narrative paradigm
Narrative paradigm
people like to tell and hear stories; the narrative paradigm determines if a story is useful
Narrative Coherence
part of the narrative paradigm; the way a story fits together and flows
Narrative fidelity
part of the narrative paradigm; if a story sounds possible
Tests of evidence
1. Is there enough?
2. Is it clear?
3. Is it consistent with common knowledge?
4. Is it consistent with other evidence?
5. Can it be verified?
Parts of Introduction in Stock Issues format
A. Attention getter
B. Thesis
C. Justification
D. Speaker credibility
E. Preview of main points
Parts of conclusion in stock issues format
A. Review main points
B. final plea
C. visualization
D. Tie back to attention getter