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66 Cards in this Set

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Developmental stuttering

It is the most common form of stuttering and begins in the preschool years

Neurogenic stuttering

Typically associated with neurological disease or trauma

Developmental framework phase 1

Preschool years, sound/syllable repetitions, stutters most when upset or excited, generally not aware or bothered

Secondary behavior stuttering

Blinking of the eyes, facial grimacing, facial tension, and exaggerated movement of the head, shoulders, and arms

Developmental framework phase 2

Elementary school, Stuttering on content words, more habitual, child refers to self as stutterer

Developmental framework phase 3

Ranges from 8 years to adulthood, stuttering responds in specific situations, little fear, avoidance of words/situations, embarrassment

Developmental framework phase 4

stuttering in its most advanced form, a person avoids certain words, sounds, and speaking situations, embarrassment

Organic theory behavior

Proposes an actual physical cause for stuttering, many proposes failed, renewed interest in cerebral dominance theory

Behavioral theory

Stuttering is a learned response, diagnosogenic theory - overly concerned parents react negatively which causes anxiety in the child and increases stuttering

Psychological theory

Stuttering is a neurotic symptom, treated most appropriately by psychotherapy

Covert repair hypothesis

Stuttering is a reaction to a flaw in speech production plan

Demand and capacities model

Stuttering develops when demands to produce fluent speech exceed child's physical and learned capacities

Explan model

Fluency failures occur when linguistic plans are sent too slowly to the motor system

The evaluation of stuttering

Detailed analysis of speech behaviors, average number of each type of disfluency, duration of disfluencies, standardized tests may be used

Standardized tests

SPI is for young children (3-8) it yields s numerical score based on a number of stuttering related behaviors,the numerical score is converted to verbal severity rating

Prolonged speech

One of the most powerful ways to reduce or eliminate stuttering, reducing speech rate

Pausing/phrasing

Lengthens naturally occurring pauses and adds pauses

Stuttering modification techniques

Cancellation phase, pull out phase, preparatory sets

Cancellation phase

An individual is required to complete the word that was stuttered and pause deliberately following the production of that stuttered word

Pull out phase

The individual does not wait until after the stuttered word is completed to correct the inappropriate behavior

Preparatory sets

Involves using the slow motion speech strategies that were learned during the first two phases of treatment, not as a response to an occurrence of stuttering, but in anticipation of stuttering

Selecting intervention technique

Depends on severity, motivation, and specific needs of the person who stutters

Efficacy of intervention (preschool age children)

Up to 91% of preschool children who received treatment maintained fluent speech 5 years post treatment

Efficacy of intervention (school age children)

61% average decrease in stuttering frequency/severity across nine studies

Resonance

Refers to the quality of the voice that is produced from sound vibrations in the pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities

Velopharyngeal inadequacy (VPI)

Failure to seperate the oral and nasal cavities

Vocal pitch

The perceptual correlate of fundamental frequency

Monotone

Is the result of not varying the habitual speaking frequency during speech production

Monopitch

lacks normal inflectional variation and in some instances the ability to change pitch voluntarily

Vocal loudness

Is the perceptual correlate of intensity which is measured in decibels (dB)

Vocal quality

Several perceptual characteristics of the voice

Breathiness

Is the perception of audible air escaping through the glottis during phonation

Vocal tremor

Is usually an indication of a loss of central nervous system control over the laryngeal mechanism

Stridor

Is noisy breathing or involuntary sound that accompanies inspiration and expiration

Consistent aphonia

Is the persistent absence of voice and perceived as whispering

Contact ulcers

Are reddened ulcerations that develop on the posterior surface of the vocal folds, in the region of the arytenoid cartilages

Vocal polyps

Like vocal nodules are caused by trauma to the vocal folds associated with vocal misuse or abuse

Parkinson disease

Is a CNS disease that results in vocal fold hypoadduction. Muscle rigidity, tremor, and an overall slowness of movement

Vocal fold paralysis

Another common hypoadductory disorder that can result from CNS damage (unilateral and bilateral)

Spastic Dysarthria

Is a neurological motor speech disturbance that results in vocal fold hyperadduction

Spasmodic dysphonia

Neurological disorder associated with hyperadduction of the vocal folds

Laryngeal papillomas

Are small wart like growths that cover the vocal folds and the interior aspects of the larynx


Granuloma

A condition associated with surgical intubation of the larynx

Conversion disorders

Psychogenic voice disorders that result from psychological suppression of emotion

Conversion aphonia

Individuals whisper even though they are capable of phonation

Cleft

Is an abnormal opening in an anatomical structure, caused by failure of structures to fuse or merge correctly early in embryonic development

Hypernasality

Occurs when the velopharyngeal mechanism fails to decouple the oral and nasal cavities

Audible nasal emission

When an individual with VPI attempts to build up the necessary air pressure in the oral cavity for production of high- pressure sounds, the air pressure subsequently escapes through the nasal cavity, causing a nasal rustle or nasal turbulence

Primary motor cortex

A 2 centimeter wide strip immediately in front of the central sulcus

Pyramidal tract

The direct activation pathway

Extrapyramidal tract

Indirect activation pathway

Peripheral nervous system

Consists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves, most of which originate in the brain stem, and 31 pairs of spinal nerves that exit the vertebral column and travel to and from muscles of the body

Dysarthria

Is a general diagnostic term for a group of speech disorders resulting from disturbances in the central and peripheral nervous system that controls the muscles of speech production

Flaccid dysarthria

Muscles are weak and reduced in tone; decreased reflexes, flaccid paralysis; eventual atrophy of muscles

Spastic dysarthria

Weak, spastic muscles; hyperactive reflexes; increased muscle tone

Ataxic dysarthria

Incoordination; reduced muscle tone; poor accuracy and timing of movements

Hypokinetic dysarthria

Reduced movement, muscle rigidity and stiffness, difficulties starting and stopping movements

Hyperkinetic dysarthria

Involuntary movements

Mixed dysarthria

Combination of two or more dysarthrias

Bell's palsy

Is an idiopathic condition of underdetermined cause that results in unilateral damage to the facial nerve

Progressive bulbar palsy

Is a neurological disease that causes degeneration of lower motor neurons resulting in flaccid paralysis of muscles and eventual muscle atrophy

Fasciculations

Isolated twitches in resting muscle due to spontaneous firing of nerve impulses in response to nerve degeneration

Myasthenia gravis

Is an autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction

Huntington's chorea

An inherited progressive disease that results in degeneration of structures in basal ganglia

Apraxia of speech

A clinically distinct neurological speech disorder that impairs the ability to plan or program the sensory motor commands needed for speech production

Cerebral palsy

A heyerogeneous group of non progressive, permanent disorders of movement and postural development , is a congenital disorder that causes dysarthria in children