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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Prince Henry the Navigator
(1394-1460)He was a Portuguese prince who encouraged seamen to explore the African coast and search for weak spots in the Moslem defense. He also set up a famous navigational school in Portugal.
Christopher Columbus
Italian seaman who sailed under Spanish flag. On October 12, 1492, he discovered an island off the Bahamas. His discovery marked the beginning of the exploration and conquest of the New World.
Amerigo Vespucci (1457-1512)
Italian navigator who sailed for Spain. Explored South America. His name given to America in 1507 by Martin Waldseemuller.
Demarcation Line of 1493
1493: Line drawn 100 leagues west of teh Cape Verde Islands. Pope awarded Portugal all lands east of the land, while Spain got all lands west of hte line. Used to avoid conflicts over land claims between two countries.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494: Treaty shifted the demarcation line of 1493 to 370 leagues west of Cape Verde Islands. Gave Spain most of North and South America while Portugal got Africa and Brazil.
Spanish Armada's Defeat
1588: English ships, under command of Sir Francis Drake, defeated the powerful Spanish Armada that was transporting troops to invade England. Victory allowed English to colonize the New World and began English naval supremacy.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Favorite of Queen Elizabeth I who gave him patent in 1583 to establish a colony. Made 3 attempts to start a settlement on Roanoke Island, but was unsuccessful.
(1584-1590)1st attempted settlement of North America by England. First 2 attempts failed and the third settlement disappeared mysteriously before a supply ship could reach the settlers.
1607: Established by John Smith. 1st permanent settlement in the New World. In Virginia, and named after King James I
Captain John Smith
Adventurer who led and saved Jamestown. Provided leadership as a member of the governing council and his return to England resulted in a starvation period for the colonists.
John Rolfe
Saved economy of Virginia by perfecting the methods of raising and curing tobacco in 1616
Headright System
Used in Virginia to encourage immigrants by giving 50 acres of land to any settler who brought a servent.
House of Burgesses
1619: First elected legislature in the colonies and was composed of 2 representatives from each plantation. The representatives met with the governor and council to frame laws for Virginia
Bacon's Rebellion
1676: Nathaniel Bacon led thousands of angry back-country men against Governor Berkeley of Virginia. Governor was unwilling to fight Indians who were attacking settlers because he wanted to preserve the colony's fur trade.
Anglicans (Church of England)
Were worshippers of the religion started by Henry VIII because of marital diputes with the Pope. Almost identical to the Roman Catholic Church, but the King of England was the head, no the Pope.
Lord Baltimore (George Calvert)
Prominant English Catholic who was seeking a haven for other Catholics. In 1632 recieved land grant and started Maryland as a haven for all Christians
Maryland's Act of Toleration
1649: Act allowed freedom of worship for all Christians in Maryland to keep the peace between Protestants and Catholics.
Cavaliers (Catholics)
Loyal supporters of King Charles I. When Charles I was decapitated, Cavaliers fled to Maryland.
James Oglethorpe
Prominant humanitarian who led group of proprietors and settlers to Georgia in 1732. Led colonists to victory over Spanish and the Indians and was the most prominant founder of the 13th colony, Georgia.
Plymouth Colony
were pilgrims, or separatists. In 1620, pilgrims landed at Plymouth, Massachusetts in search of religious freedom. Were persecuted for wanting to separate from the Church of England so they emigrated to the New World on the Mayflower.
William Bradford
First elected governor of Plymouth colony. Wrote 'William Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation' in 1646.
Mayflower Compact
1620: Was an agreement signed by 41 adult males before before the landing at Plymouth by the separatists. Made all settlers consent to be ruled by the majority's will.
Massachusetts Bay Colony
In 1630, Puritans colonized Massachusetts Bay. Wanted to purify Anglican Church of any remaining Roman Catholic origin. All Puritans had a say in government affairs.
John Winthrop
Led 1000 Puritans to America in 1630and was elected governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Wrote 'The History of New England' in 1649
Followed teachings of John Calvin and believed in theocracy that would allow the state to force all people to live and worship in an orthodox way.
Cambridge Agreement
1629: Bound John Winthrop and fellow Puritans to migrate to America if the British government allowed them to keep a charter which gave the Puritans virtual self-government.
The Great Puritan Migration
Between 1630 and 1640, a large migration of Puritans to the Massachusetts Colongy took place because of the persecution by King Charles I.
Doctrine created by John Calvin in 1534. Rejected authority of Roman Catholic Church and relied on the Bible as the source of religious truth. Also stressed predestination of every person to grace in harmony with God or damnation in separation from him.
French Puritans who opposed the Catholic church and were persecuted for it. Led m any of them to escape persecution by traveling to the New World.
King Philip's War (Metacom War)
1675-1676: War in which the Indian chieftain, King Philip, destroyed dozens of towns in Massachusetts and killed hundreds of settlers because they encroached his lands. "Metacomet" was King Philip's Indian name.
Salem Witch Trials
1692: In Salem, Massachusetts. Hysterical witchcraft purge resulted in deaths of 20 accused citizens. Delusion created by Puritan intolerance and belief in witchcraft. Incident marked the end of Puritanism.
Roger Williams
Founder of Rhode Island after he was banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1635 because he stated that the government had no authority over the personal opinions of individuals. Founded Rhode Island in 1636. Established first Baptist church in America.
Anne Hutchinson
Attacked authority of the clergy in Massachusetts Bay Colony by stating that they were not part of the elect. Was banished to Rhode Island in 1637 when she claimed to have spoken with the Holy Spirit.
Supporters of Anne Hutchinson. Included many merchants, young men and women.
New Netherlands
First discovered by Henry Hudson. Became a Dutch colony thruogh the efforts of the Dutch West India Company. In 1664, it was seized by Charles II and given to his brother, the Duke of York.