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76 Cards in this Set

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Is the office of the prophet a permanent office?

No it is an occasional one, and not the ordinary office of ministry to God's people.

What is Collin's basic text for Prophetism in the OT and ANE and it's outline?

Deut 18.9–22 9–13 Rejected practices – attempts to secure some kind of success (not that they don't work... just that they are abominable) 14–19 God's Appointed Agency are his prophets – a spokesman for God 20–22 Criteria for distinguishing true from false. Wrong to take these criteria as rules to be applied rigidly every time a prophet opened his mouth. When a prophet announced God’s coming judgment and called for repentance, it would clearly be pointless to wait first to see if the judgment actually came to pass, and then to repent (too late!). Rather the criteria represent the means by which a prophet gained his reputation as a true prophet and spokesman of the Lord.

What Passage does Collins point to as the prophet's doctrinal test?

Deut 13.1–6 & Jer 23.9ff

Fairbairn's 3 characteristics of the prophet

1) direct personal communication from God. 2) the message concerns the things of God, and his kingdom (in terms of the corporate entity and its mission to the world) 3. he faithfully recorded or uttered the revelation he received.

Stuart's four affirmations about OT prophets
1. considered themselves servants of God, vehicles through whom God spoke 2. considered the content of their message unoriginal 3. considered themselves to occupy a divinely appointed societal office, correcting illegal beliefs and practices 4. They understood what they preached.
Writing Prophets are also called the
later prophets... as opposed to the former prophets (Josh–Kings, a prophetic interpretation of some of Israel's history)
Bullock's structural questions when dealing with the writing prophets
1. is the particular book a sermon collection? 2. What are the occasions of the the individual addresses (and do they matter to interpretation) 3. Single composition or edited to produce unity? (unless specifically told in text, Collins says it is unrecoverable and uninteresting) Only the text we have has objective existence and is the proper object of exegesis.
What is form criticism?
Form criticism is mostly about isolating the individual pieces, figuring out what’s early and late, and identifying the “original,” usually oral, setting of the earliest bits.
How is Canonicity apparent in the proph
Canonicity is inherent in the idea of true and false prophets, and in God’s own seal of authority in Deut 18.19 (19) "And whoever will not give heed to my words which he shall speak in my name, I myself will require it of him."
When was the division of Israelite kingdom?
930 BC
Neo–Assyrian Empire as it relates to Northern & Southern Kingdoms
1) Spanned 288 years – 900–612 BC 2) Jehu offered tribute to Shalmaneser III 841 3) especially influential on Israel after Tiglath Pileser, 745 (due to TP's westward expansion) A) Northern Kingdom Jonah, Amos, Hosea – leading up to the destruction of Samaria, 722/721 B)Southern Kingdom Micah, Isaiah – living in the shadow of the Assyrians, down to about 680 BC C) Southern Kingdom Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk – as the Assyrians are on the wane
Neo–Babylonian Empire in light of the Southern Kingdom
Spanned 87 years from 626 (Nabopolassar defeated Assyrians and founded dynasty) to 539 (Babylon captured by Persian–led coalition) Southern Kingdom: Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Obadiah, Daniel – leading up to and just after destruction of Jerusalem, 586 BC
Persian period
Pertaining to Judah during the 6th to 5th century. The Persian Period continued until the invasion of Alexander the Great in 334 BCE, and the start of the Hellenistic Period Judah restored but only partially chastened: Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Joel – prophets of the restoration of Judah
Fairbairn's description of two misguided views of prophecy and prediction
1) Joseph Butler – "nothing but the history of events before they come to pass" Leaves out the moral element of prophecy 2) predictive element as absent or unimportant(playing up forth–telling over fore–telling)
Interpretive principles of prophecy
1) understand prophecy and prediction 2) poetic elevation (because to a Hebrew this was the right way to express “high” things) 3) figurative representation – prophets describe the appearance of Messiah's kingdom in terms of past and preparatory ages. 4) Relative (not total) disregard of time periods. "fore–shortening"
Key recurring interpretive issues in prophetical books
Looking for them will make you.....
C J.E.M.S 1) Conditional / Unconditional 2) Judgment and salvation – how can a book, e.g. Amos, which is so heavily judgment, still contain promises of blessing? (Does that reflect a later editor’s views?) Further, what were the judgments and salvations promised – earthly, heavenly, or what? 3) Eschatology "later days" / "day of the Lord" 4) Messiah 5) Sacrifice – abuse of, or hypocritical adherence condemned
Key Questions for theological exposition of a passage in a prophetical book.
1/ Historical circumstances of this prophet and his work? Specific circumstances of pericope. 2/ Assumed form in which covenant institutions (e.g. kingship; worship; etc.) are administered, and how is this drawn upon and enriched? 3/ Literary relation of this text to its larger context, and & literary structure of the pericope itself? 4/ What imagery does the prophet use? 5/ What would constitute fulfillment of predictive elements? 6/ What elements are conditional and unconditional? 7/ How did the people respond to the message (if we can tell)? 8/ How does this passage speak about the people of God – their current condition, their role in the story, and God’s future for the people?
Eighth Century International Scene – Assyria
1) had been strong in 9th Century (Jehu 841 brought tribute to Shalmaneser III) 2) Weakened and preoccupied with Armenia (Urartu) and internal problems 3) Tiglath–Pileser III (745–727) revived westward expansion 4) Shalmaneser V (727–722) and Sargon II (722–705) destroyed Northern kingdom
Tiglath–Pileser III
Ruled Assyria 745–727 revived westward expansion (Note Destruction of Damascus 732)
Shalmaneser V
Ruled Assyria 727–722. He and Sargon II (722–705) destroyed Northern kingdom
Sargon II
Ruled Assyria 722–705 He and Shalmaneser V (727–722) destroyed Northern kingdom
Eighth Century International Scene – Arameans
A. C. R. A. P. 1) Assyria – Under pressure from Assyria (until ca. 770) 2) Conquered – Fell to Israel under Jeroboam II (2 Kgs 14.28), ca. 770–750 3) Rezin – after 753 BC (death of Jeroboam II), independent under Rezin (750–732) 4) Allied – allied with Israel against Judah [Syro–Ephraimite war, 732] 5) Pileser – In 732 BC Ahaz of Judah paid Tiglath–Pileser to destroy Damascus (2 Kgs 16.5–9; cf. Am 1.3–5 for the fate of Qir !)
Eighth Century Internal Conditions – Israel
1) Jeroboam II 782–753 return to prosperity; restored Solomon’s borders; 2 Kgs 14.23–29 2) Lesser Kings 753–740
Zechariah 753–752 – assassinated
King of Israel – Jeroboam II
Ruled from 782–753 Return to prosperity; restored Solomon’s borders; 2 Kgs 14.23–29 2 Kings 14:24 (ESV) And he did what was evil in the sight of the LORD. He did not depart from all the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, which he made Israel to sin.
King of Israel – Pekah
Ruled from 740–732 Allied with Damascus, against Judah (and Assyria) – assassinated
King of Israel – Hoshea
Ruled from 732–722 Fall of Samaria
Eighth Century Internal Conditions – Judah
796 A–A –J –A –H 715
29–27–8–17–28 1) Amaziah 796–767 good 2 Kgs 14.3 2) Azariah (Uzziah) 767–740 good – 2 Kgs15.3 3) Jotham 740–732 good – 2 Kgs 15.34 4) Ahaz 732–715 bad – 2 Kgs 16.2–3 (trib. to Assyria) 5) Hezekiah 715–687 good – 2 Kgs18.3
Historical Setting of Jonah
2 Kgs 14.25: during reign of Jeroboam II, Assyria weakened
Genre of Jonah
prophecy in the form of didactic narrative
Problems with historical setting of Jonah
no record of these events in Nineveh – but we have only sketchy records from this period, and they’re not of the sort to record this!
Structure of Jonah
Symmetry (2:9–10 center) Two balancing parts (1–2 & 3–4) Each part begins with a commission and Jonah's response to it. (1:1–3 & 3:1–3) In each part Jonah's response to the commission brings him into contact with pagans who turn to God and express faith (1:4–16 & 3:4–10) In the balancing chapters 2 & 4 Jonah and God deal individually with each other... each contain the phrase "and Jonah prayed to the Lord"
Message of Jonah
FIRST: Based upon the wordplay: If you repent from your evil way then God will relent from sending the calamity. Conversely, if there comes a calamity, you can know it is God's punishment for your evil. SECOND: When we consider the features of the story: 1) God's control of the storm, fish, plan, worm and east wind; 2) God's granting repentance and faith to the sailors and Ninevites in spite of Jonah 3) the confession of God's gracious character 4) illustration of grace shown to pagans and Jonah... we can see that this is a message to Israel of rebuke, warning and loving invitation.
Jonah – Repetition of key words
gādôl (great) rāʽâ (evil) wayӗman (and he appointed)
Fairbairn's Conditional / Unconditional Category One
Prophecies whose direct aim is to disclose God’s purpose of grace for his people – e.g. Messiah No conditionality a) doesn’t nullify necessity of human response as the instrumental condition b) doesn’t guarantee an individual’s enjoyment of these blessings apart from genuine faith and holiness; c) doesn't deny that the specific outworking of a prediction might be “modified” in the course of human response
Fairbairn's Conditional / Unconditional Category Two
Prophecies concerning powers and kingdoms opposed to God’s kingdom (i.e. prophecies about them addressed to God’s people – so Jonah is not included). No conditionality These express God’s love and faithfulness to his covenant people, and therefore his fixed purpose (even though of course individuals may have repented and escaped).
Fairbairn's Conditional / Unconditional Category Three
EE. Con. EA. AM Everything else Conditional because: (a) ethical aim of prophecy; (b) anthropomorphic mode of prophecy – adapted to human expression. This includes both threatened judgments and promised blessings
Amos Historical Setting
during the reign of Jeroboam II (Israel) and Uzziah (Judah) Earthquake ca. 760 BC (cf. Zech14.5). Since Amos ministered during reigns of both Jeroboam II and Uzziah, his message and the earthquake came during height of prosperity.
Social conditions seen it: 2.6–8 (below); 3.14; 4.4–5; 8.14 (Amos 2:6) They sell the righteous for silver,and the needy for a pair of shoes (7) they that trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth, and turn aside the way of the afflicted; a man and his father go in to the same maiden, so that my holy name is profaned; (8) they lay themselves down beside every altar upon garments taken in pledge; and in the house of their God they drink the wine of those who have been fined.
Outline of Amos
J – I – V– E 1–2 Judgment: Gentiles, Judah, Israel 3–6 Indictment 7–9:10 Visions – Series of 5 9:11–15 Epilogue: Restoration of Davidic kingdom.
Flow of Amos
Collins – Amos is collected sermon notes vs. Driver – chs. 1–2 introduce the theme of the book, judgment upon Israel; chs. 3–6 argue against the privileged guarantee of safety that the Israelites believed they enjoyed; chs. 7–9 reinforce that theme of divine judgment
Thematic passage Amos 3:1–2 (1 of 2)
1 Hear this word that the LORD has spoken against you, O people of Israel, against the whole family that I brought up out of the land of Egypt: 2 “You only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities.
Thematic passage Amos 5:4–9 (2 of 2)
4 For thus says the LORD to the house of Israel: “Seek me and live; 5 but do not seek Bethel, and do not enter into Gilgal or cross over to Beersheba; for Gilgal shall surely go into exile, and Bethel shall come to nothing.” 6 Seek the LORD and live, lest he break out like fire in the house of Joseph, and it devour, with none to quench it for Bethel, 7 O you who turn justice to wormwood and cast down righteousness to the earth! 8 He who made the Pleiades and Orion, and turns deep darkness into the morning and darkens the day into night, who calls for the waters of the sea and pours them out on the surface of the earth, the LORD is his name; 9 who makes destruction flash forth against the strong, so that destruction comes upon the fortress. (vv 14–17 echo these sentiments)
What does “the day of the Lord” mean in Amos?
To the people it meant the day when Yahweh would intervene to put Israel at the head of the nations, irrespective of Israel’s faithfulness to him. BUT Amos declares that the day means judgment for Israel.
What should we make of Amos' view of sacrifice in 5.21–27?
Amos is a prophet to the Northern Tribe where "worship is hopelessly syncretistic and polluted" Acceptable worship must be: (1) exclusively to Yahweh, and in response to the way he has revealed himself through Moses etc. (2) according to the outward rites he has given (3) with integrity of heart (living faith with moral obedience).
The northern kingdom fails on all 3 counts. So we cannot legitimately find Amos opposed to sacrificial worship as such.
Interpretation of Am 9:11: In that day I will raise up the booth of David that is fallen...
One need not necessarily presuppose that David’s hut has already fallen. The word is "nōpelet" and we may either take it as “about to fall”, or as “fallen” looked at from the point of view of the fulfillment rather than from the point of view of the prophecy itself.
The setting of the prophecy is a prediction while David’s shelter is still occupied (1.1 Uzziah), but anticipates the fall of Judah.
In light of the corporate nature of the warning that Amos is giving to Isreal, how might one preach Amos 3:2: "You only have I known of all the families of the earth; therefore I will punish you for all your iniquities.
A – H – A 1)appreciation instill in the people an appreciation for redemptive history that displays God's determination to call, purify, and preserve a people for himself who will exhibit his love and truth to all the world 2) heirs – help the people to see that they are the heirs and beneficiaries of this story 3) atmosphere
urge them to make their congregation, presbytery, and denomination a place where the atmosphere stimulates all the members to greater and more consistent faithfulness. (And to help one another, not by being sternly judgmental, but by being lovingly helpful and encouraging).
Date of Hosea
Bullock gives date ca. 752–724 (last 30 yrs N.kingdom) Collins "likely placed after Jeroboam's death
Conditions of Hosea
Idolatry and immorality intertwined (belief and behavior!); cf. 2.5, 8, 13 Baalism
Outline of Hosea
1–3: Hosea’s marriage as a parable 4–14: The parable spelt out
Thematic passages of Hosea
Chapter 14 "a magnificent summary" (the whole of the last chapter) Also 11:8–9: (8) How can I give you up, O Ephraim? How can I hand you over, O Israel? How can I make you like Admah? How can I treat you like Zeboiim? My heart recoils within me; my compassion grows warm and tender. (9)I will not execute my burning anger; I will not again destroy Ephraim; for I am God and not a man, the Holy One in your midst, and I will not come in wrath.
Key Words, ideas in Hosea
"to know God/Yahweh" "prostitution / whoredom"
Theological Emphasis of Hosea
13.4–8 cf. 2.8: the one true God to whom his people are bound by covenant (6.6–7). But also, the nature of God’s grace: parallel between Hosea’s heartbreak over Gomer and God’s heartbreak over Israel – in spite of which he will still take her back! [Strongly anthropomorphic description of the “conflict” within God himself]
What is the one of the key issues of understanding Hosea's marriage and children?
The issue (at least partly) turns on whether the Hebrew [זכה]is properly translated as referring to commercial sex (i.e. “prostitution”) or to sexual impurity more generally. Collins sees the latter. He notes that sexual impurity or promiscuity is "certainly right" Only Jezereel is said to be Hosea's child, the others are left open to support the imagery.
Who is the woman purchased in Hosea 3:2?
Collins believes it to be Gomer. Some say a prostitute – with whom Hosea did not have relations.
Is Hosea 6:7 (a) “like Adam”/(b) “as a man”/(c) “at Adam”:
ESV, NIV, NASB, Kidner, Keil for (a); Calvin for (b); RSV for (c) [ כ written for ב ]: note relevance to covenant theology and Gen 2 – 3.
What is the view on Gomer and the second woman argued for in Whoredom: God's Unfaithful Wife in Biblical Theology by Raymond C. Ortlund Jr.?
Ortand takes the command to marry “a woman of harlotry” to be an anticipation of Gomer’s adultery rather than an description of her pre–marital behavior. He also considers the woman of Hosea 3 to be Gomer.
A tidy summary of the message of Hosea
The life of whoredom Israel has chosen must be purged from her national soul; but through all the agony required for the cleansing to be thorough, nothing will be able to separate her from the love of Yahweh
Rulers at the time of Hosea
Israel: Jeroboam II 782–753 "Lesser Kings" (Pekah 740–732) Judah: Uzziah 767–740 Jotham 740–732 Ahaz 732–715 Hezekiah 715–686
Micah's audience
Southern Kingdom
Date of Micah
Bullock 740–687 BC
Kings during Micah
1) Azariah (2Kg 14.21= Uzziah 2Chr 26.1) – 767–740 – good – 2 Kg 15.3 2) Jotham – 740–732 – good – 2Kg 15.32–37 3) Ahaz – 732–715 – BAD – 2Kg 16.1–11 4) Hezekiah – 715–687 – good – 2Kg 18.1–8 5) Manasseh – 687–642 – BAD – 2Kg 21.1–9
Major Conflicts – Syro–Ephraimite War
1) Recorded in 2 Kg 16.5–6 2) ca. 732 BC 3) Pekah of Israel and Rezin of Damascus tried to force Judah to join an anti–Assyrian alliance. Background of Isa 7ff 4) impact – heavy drain on exchequer, century of vassalage, became a weakened target for Philistines and Edomites
Major Conflicts – Fall of Samaria
(722) to Sargon II
Major Conflicts – Egyptian agitation
Egyptian agitation to revolt against Assyria (before death of Sargon, 705): cf. Isa 20.
Major Conflicts – Sennacherib’s invasion
(701) Isa 36–37 = 2Kg 18.13–19.37
Internal conditions – Jotham
740–732 2 Kg 15.34–35 Did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, the high places not removed & the people were worshiping there, upper gate of the house of the Lord was built.
Internal conditions – Ahaz
732–715 2Kg 16.2–4; cf. Isa 2.6ff 8.16ff Did not do what was right in the eyes of the Lord, walked as the kings of Israel, burned son as offering, sacrificed & offered on high places and on the hills and under every green tree
Internal conditions – Hezekiah
715–687 2Kg 18.3–6 Did what was right in the eyes of the Lord, the high places were removed, broke the pillars, cut down Asherah, broke bronze serpent of Moses. Trusted in the Lord – none like him among the Kings of Judah after him – or before! Collins notes that the popular religion was not as pure as Hezekiah's.
Internal conditions – Manasseh
687–642 2Kg 21.2ff Did what was evil in the sight of the Lord according to the despicable practice of the nations whom the Lord drove out before the people of Israel, rebuilt high places, erected altars for Baal, made Asherah as Ahab, worshiped host of heaven and served them... burned his son as an offering... fortune telling, omens, mediums, necromancers...
Major difficulty with Micah
Micah spans a long time (Jotham–Hezekiah), and conditions changed over time. Therefore: where do we locate a particular oracle (sometimes it says, sometimes you can only guess)? Does it always matter (i.e. how does it function in the present shape of the book?)?
Micah Outline
I. (chs. 1–2) Judgment and deliverance II. (chs 3–5) False leaders denounced III. (chs. 6–7) Hope in darkness

Micah Structure

Edited Sermons Waltke, 144, on overall view: “Micah’s prophecy contains once–independent announcements of judgment, oracles of salvation, controversy sayings, lawsuit speeches, instructions, laments, prayer, hymn, and a proclamation of the Lord’s epiphany. One could think of it almost as a preacher’s file of sermons delivered on different occasions in the life of the capital. But unlike a drawer of sermon files, the careful student will discern that the messages have been skillfully fitted together like pieces of a mosaic by means of catchwords and logical particles.”
Micah Thematic Passage (1 of 2) Micah 6:6–8
Micah 6:6–8. (6) With what shall I come before the LORD, and bow myself before God on high? Shall I come before him with burnt offerings, with calves a year old? (7) Will the LORD be pleased with thousands of rams, with ten thousands of rivers of oil? Shall I give my first–born for my transgression, the fruit of my body for the sin of my soul?” (8) He has showed you, O man, what is good; and what does the LORD require of you but to do justice, and to love kindness,and to walk humbly with your God
Micah Thematic Passage (2 of 2) Micah 7:18–20
Micah 7:18–20 (18) Who is a God like thee, pardoning iniquity and passing over transgression for the remnant of his inheritance? He does not retain his anger forever because he delights in steadfast love. (19) He will again have compassion upon us, he will tread our iniquities under foot. Thou wilt cast all our sins into the depths of the sea. (20) Thou wilt show faithfulness to Jacob and steadfast love to Abraham, as thou hast sworn to our fathers from the days of old.
Micah Theological emphasis
Do not simply engage the covenant externally. Embrace the covenant from the heart, doing justice, loving kindness, and walking humbly with your God. (Micah 6.8) There is blessing in the world to come, but something needs to happen between now and then... namely the purification of the people of God.
General Review Unit 1–3 Who were the prophets to the North?
Jonah, Amos (from the South), Hosea
General Review Unit 1–3 Who were the prophets to the South?