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63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

name 5 general causes of colic in ruminants

1. pain-stretch receptors in serosa

2. pain stretch receptors in mesentary

3. ischemia/infarction

4. inflammation

5. muscle spasms (slaframine)

how does a cow being a foregut fermenter make it less prone to colic?

-gas can be eructate

-ileus doesn't cause abnormal fermentation

-adhesions/bad motility don't cause gas accumulation in the bowel

true or false:

cows being able to vomit and burp is an advantage over cows


Does it take longer or shorter to active pain/stretch receptors in ruminants?


true or false:

cows have a short mesentary which makes them less likely to torse


only small intestine has a long mesentary

T or F:

cows take a long time to wall off inflammation

false: they respond quickly

T or F:

horses have a stronger predilection for intestinal thrombosis than cows


they have strongylus vulgaris, ruminants dont

what do ruminant gastric receptors signal: satiety or pain?


T or F

fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base abnormalities happen quite a bit in a cow, and makes them look less colic-y


depression overshadows pain

pain stretch receptors can be found in the serosa of what organs?






broad ligaments

what are more prominent signs of colic in a cow?

-abdominal distention/contour



-decreased milk production

-abnormal posture

give 3 examples of ruminant abnormal posture with colic



-stretched out

describe splinting

what does it indicate?

back hunched, elbows out

indicates cranial abdominal pain

define hunched/posturing

what does it indicate?

-back end dropped, elbows normal

indicates caudal pain/tenesmus

define stretched out

what does it indicate?

front legs forward, hind legs back, back ventroflexed like a sawhorse

indicates dorsal pain

you see a cow eating frequent small bites of food, leaving it in their mouth and has poor milk production

these are all signs of...


(besides rolling and looking at flank, I chose non-obvious ones)

what clin path do you expect with enteritis, renal disease, or a ruptured bladder?


in a cow with obstruction/ileus, the hypochloremia is proportional to....?



proximity to the pylorus

if your cow has enteritis, shock, and/or tissue compromise, you expect your patient to have metabolic... acidosis/alkalosis?


a cow with an obstruction will generally have metabolic acidosis/alkalosis


what is the leading cause of colic in ruminants and camelids?

urogenital disase

what is the major urogenital disease in female ruminants/camelids?


female: uterine torsion/dystocia

male: urinary tract obstruction

most peritonitis in ruminants is associated with _______ disease, but _________, ________ _________, __________, and _________ _______ may also lead to peritonitis

most with GI disease



-umbilical infections


-urogenital disease

Gi disease, which causes peritonitis, is usually secondary to....?

(5 total)

-grain overload

-traumatic reticulitis

-perforating ulcers

-severe enteritis

-ischemic bowel

how do you diagnose peritonitis?





how do you treat acute peritonitis in a cow?

chronic peritonitis?

acute: can leave it alone, otherwise antibiotics and NSAIDS, surgery if diffuse

chronic: surgery to break down adhesions

poor gastric emptying or abomasal/intestinal fluid reflux will lead to _________ abdominal distension


wha is the one abomasal displacement that can lead to severe omental stretch and ischemia of the abomasal wall?


is a cow with an AV colicking? (spelling?!)

-the colic is transient

-pain overshadowed by fluid/acid base imbalance

what are the sequelae of small intestinal entrapments/volvulus/obstructions?

obstruction of lumen-->intestinal distention-->abdominal fluid distention-->stretch on mesentary

T or F:

small intestinal entrapments/volvulus/obstructions can cause ischemia and gas distention


T or F:

with small intestinal entrapments/volvulus/obstructions, the greater the degree of ischemia, the more likely the animal is to show blood work suggestive of obstruction

FALSE. LESS LIKELY to show BW b/c it happens so quickly

how would you diagnose small intestinal entrapments/volvulus/obstructions?

-abdominal distension

-multiple small pings on right side


-maybe decreased fecal production

what is bloody gut?

what causes it?

SI obstruction due to blood clots usually in the duodenum/jejunum

no one knows for sure what causes it

with the telescoping of the intestines, what is the oral section of bowel called?

the aboral section?

oral section: intussuceptum

aboral: intussuscipiens

what predisposes a cow to getting an intussusception?

a calf?

cow: mural and mesenteric masses

calf: enteritis

if you have a calf with a history of enteritis, acute abdominal distention, and decreased fecal passage--what do you think it is?


what GI disease most consistently causes colic in cattle?


what does the labwork look like with an intussception?

how would you differentiate it from a DA?

-hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis

-CBC will have inflammation due to necrosing bowel (unless peracute)

a cow has ventral abdominal distention and colic. how do you differentiate between your two biggest suspicions of mesenteric volvulus and SI intussusception?

-volvulus= gast distended

-intussusception= not really gas distended

you see a cow pass feces with the consistency of raspberry jam. what does the cow have?


will rectal of an intussusception reveal turgid or balloon small intestines?


how do you treat intussusceptions?

-surgical resection


can an intussusception take a week to show up or is an acute thing?

can actually take 5-9 days with an incomplete obstruction

what are the risk factors for cecal dilation and volvulus?

early lactation

highly fermentable diets

low scratch factor

you have a cow with cecal dilation

do you expect circulatory compromise/dehydration?

what about milk production?

both are mildly decreased (compare to volvulus)

true or false:

cecal volvulus leads to a slow decline in clinical conditions


clinical signs of cecal volvulus?



lack of fecal passage


how do you treat cecal dilation?

If mild: fluids, calcium, roughage diet

if severe: surgery

how do you treat cecal cilation?

surgery and fluids

-can do cecal amputation

characterize the feces from severe diffuse enteritis?

small amounts of diarrhea, but usually pass no feces

you walk up to a cow and it looks like a beach ball--bilateral dorsal and ventral abdominal distention. what is it?

severe diffuse enteritis

how do you treat severe diffuse enteritis?

eh. some respond to fluid and electrolyte treatment, many just die

what poison can cause hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in cattle?


what is the most common clinical sign of pain with colitis?


what is the most common cause of tenesmus/colitis in cattle?

coccidiosis (eimeria)

how do you diagnosis and treat colitis in cattle?

dx: fecal smear

treat: anticoccidial drugs (amprolium)

why do calves frequently get abdominal distention and colic?

abnormal fermentation of milk

more common with poor quality milk replacers

how do you differentiate a calf with milk tympany from mesenteric torsion and abomasal volvulus

calves with milk tympany get better in a few hours

how do you treat milk tympany/calf indigestion?

cross you fingers

when does the adult form of intestinal tympany occur?

a month postpartum in dairy cattle

how will a cow with an adult form of intestinal tympany present?

ping everywhere, are painful, milk production and appetite decrease

rectal unremarkable

HR 100


how do you treat the adult form of intestinal tympany?

calcium. no surgery or anything