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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What NT do thalamic relay cells use?
Glutamate, thus they are excitatory
Give correct Biosynthesis for ACh.
Acetyl CA + choline ---> chat---> ACh + coenzyme A
What are the 3 types of nuclei in the thalamus?
1. Specific Relay
2. Associative Relay (diffuse relay)
3. Nonspecific Nuclei
Give biosynthesis for NE, Epinephrine, and DA
Tyrosine --> tyrosinehydroxylase --> L-DOPA --> aromatic decarboxylase --> DA --> DA beta hydroxylase --> NE --> phenylthalonalamine --> EP
Increased depolarization of thalamic cells causes the induction of (sleep/awake)___________ state.
Where are the diff categories of NT found?
AA--> cortico-cortical systems
BA--> modulatory systems, nonsensory, nonmotor
Neur--> interneurons, colocalized, coreleased w/ BA and AA
TRUE/FALSE: Thalami-cortical input is spatially restricted to the cortex layers.
FALSE: it is spatially restricted to columns.
Give Receptors for each NT.
1. glutamate
2. Gaba
3. ACh
4. NE
5. DA
6. 5HT
3. Nicotonic, Muscarinic
4. Alpha1,2 Beta1,2
5. D1-D5
6. 5HT1-5HT4
Why does Rall's rule work?
1. Because the dendritic arbors equal about 1 length constants which allows for spatial summation.
2. The time constant is so little that it also gets integrated.
Give 5 criteria for NT's
1. synthesized and relased from neurons
2. released from terminals
3. should produce physiological response in postsynaptic target
4. there are known antagonists and agonists
5. appropriate termination mechanisms
TRUE or FALSE: The thalamus maintains separattion of inputs (point to point maps)
What kinds of effects do the diff NT's have?
AA--> fast action, short duration, ionotropic
BA--> slow action, long duration, metabotropic
Neur--> slow action, long duration
If you damage the ________ and/or the _________, you lose consciousness
Intralaminar Thalamic Nuclei, reticular formation
What are some categories for NT's?
1. Biogenic Amines
2. Amino Acids
3. Neuropeptides
4. unconvetional NT's
Cortico-Thalamic FEEDBACK arises in Layer _____ of cortex.
Give an example of each NT plus a function associated w/ it.
1. a) NE = vigilances, attentiveness, arousal
b) DA = reward, movement, attention, learning
c)5HT- regulation of mood, eating, sleeping, dreaming, arousal, pain
2. glutamate = excitatory, sends 2nd messenger system
3. Beta endorphin= immune system regulation
What are 2 things that can bypass the thalamus?
Olfaction and pain.
Give examplse of unconventional NT's
gases, hormones, lipids
Where does cortical feed back go to in the thalamus?
It goes to the distal dendrites of the relay cells.
Give biosynthesis of 5HT.
Tryptophan --> tryptophan hydroxylase --> 5HTP --> aromatic-L-amino acid decarboxylase --> 5HT
Where does sensory input go to in thalamic relay cells?
They go to the proximal dendrites of the relay cell.
What roles do NT's they play?
AA--> data transmission
BA & Neur--> Neuromodulation
What is Rall's 3/2 rule?
It says that the summation of each of the daughter dendrites (B, C, D) to the 3/2 is equal to the dendrite of the parent (A) to the 3/2.
A^(3/2) = B^(3/2) + C^(3/2) + D^(3/2).
This ensures that all input is integrated.