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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


The acquiring and maintenance of info for later retrieval

Explicit (memory tests)

Conscious recollection

Specific events

*Depth of processing

AMNESIA is explicit memory deficit

Implicit (memory tests)


Not aware of actually encoding to memory

No initial reference

- usually a processing task for

Explicit and Implicit *problem

These are only memory tests, not measure of cognitive theory

- Amnesia - better to think about Declarative/procedural

Procedural memory

Skills and procedures

motor skills

-supported by memory systems INDEPENDENT OF HIPPOCAMPAL SYSTEM

Declarative memory

Facts, learning experiences

- active process

various processing systems feeding the Hippocampal system

- relational

- activating a memory triggers associated memories

4 models of memory

Serial models (3)

Parallel model

Atkinson-Shriffrin model (1968) [SERIAL]

Sensory>Working> encode to Long Term memory

- Depends on attention and rehearsal

Levels of Processing model [Serial]

Shallow-Deep continuum

Shallow = repetition (maintenance)

Deep = form associations (elaborative) *more durable

Tulving [SERIAL]

- LTM model

Parallel Distributed Processing [Parallel]

Memory = activation of different areas

*Pattern of activation

Learning = strength of connections between relevant sites changes

(based on computer systems)

- nodes not important

Amnesia - which models are better?

Serial models are most useful for studying Amnesia

William James: Memory is...

Personal awareness of a past experience

- episodic

Tulving - Episodic memory

- Re-experience through 'Autonoetic awareness'

- Concious recollection of one's personal past

- Depends on semantic memory and other systems, but has its own UNIQUE SYSTEM

Semantic memory

General facts, knowledge acquisition

Semantic - Episodic dissociation?

are these systems independent?

Tulving: Episodic and Semantic share many features but are not parallel systems

*Episodic is an extension of Semantic

Squire and Zola: Both Episodic and Semantic depend on Hippocampus, but are independent

*Parallel systems

Squire and Zola

Episodic and Semantic are independent, thus if Hippocampus is damaged, results in deficits in both types of memory (personal events and facts)

- E.g HM (Anterograde Amnesia)

Tulving SPI model

SPI (Serial Parallel Independent) hypothesis

- encoding relies into episodic memory relies on semantic system

-Episodic is dissociable from semantic

* If Semantic damaged, episodic also damaged.

(double dissociation)

If only episodic damaged, semantic is fine

(single dissociation)

Vargha-Khadem study (1997)

- 3 patients who suffered early bilateral MTL injury

- Small bilaterial hippocampi

- intact extra-hippocampal TL

-Episodic memory impaired, but Semantic was fine

* Still able to acquire knowledge

Memory deficits of 3 patients

- Spatial, temporal and episodic memory affected

- could not be left alone

* All 3 did well academically (semantic info)

Intact semantic, impaired episodic = functionally dissociable

* Episodic relies on hippocampal circuit

-- Supports Tulving

V-K findings fit with what model?

Tulving's SPI model

- Episodic memory function relies on semantic memory

- Semantic memory can still work when episodic is impaired.

*but Tulving does not always apply

Amnestic patients suffer from what kind of memory deficits?

Declarative (facts) -

- esp Episodic (personal events)