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23 Cards in this Set

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Memory

The acquiring and maintenance of info for later retrieval

Explicit (memory tests)

Conscious recollection


Specific events


*Depth of processing




AMNESIA is explicit memory deficit

Implicit (memory tests)

Unconscious


Not aware of actually encoding to memory


No initial reference


- usually a processing task for

Explicit and Implicit *problem

These are only memory tests, not measure of cognitive theory




- Amnesia - better to think about Declarative/procedural

Procedural memory

Skills and procedures


motor skills


-supported by memory systems INDEPENDENT OF HIPPOCAMPAL SYSTEM



Declarative memory

Facts, learning experiences


- active process




various processing systems feeding the Hippocampal system




- relational




- activating a memory triggers associated memories



4 models of memory



Serial models (3)


Parallel model

Atkinson-Shriffrin model (1968) [SERIAL]

Sensory>Working> encode to Long Term memory




- Depends on attention and rehearsal



Levels of Processing model [Serial]

Shallow-Deep continuum


Shallow = repetition (maintenance)


Deep = form associations (elaborative) *more durable

Tulving [SERIAL]

- LTM model





Parallel Distributed Processing [Parallel]

Memory = activation of different areas


*Pattern of activation




Learning = strength of connections between relevant sites changes




(based on computer systems)




- nodes not important

Amnesia - which models are better?

Serial models are most useful for studying Amnesia

William James: Memory is...

Personal awareness of a past experience


- episodic

Tulving - Episodic memory

- Re-experience through 'Autonoetic awareness'


- Concious recollection of one's personal past




- Depends on semantic memory and other systems, but has its own UNIQUE SYSTEM





Semantic memory

General facts, knowledge acquisition



Semantic - Episodic dissociation?

are these systems independent?




Tulving: Episodic and Semantic share many features but are not parallel systems


*Episodic is an extension of Semantic




Squire and Zola: Both Episodic and Semantic depend on Hippocampus, but are independent


*Parallel systems



Squire and Zola

Episodic and Semantic are independent, thus if Hippocampus is damaged, results in deficits in both types of memory (personal events and facts)




- E.g HM (Anterograde Amnesia)



Tulving SPI model

SPI (Serial Parallel Independent) hypothesis




- encoding relies into episodic memory relies on semantic system




-Episodic is dissociable from semantic




* If Semantic damaged, episodic also damaged.


(double dissociation)




If only episodic damaged, semantic is fine


(single dissociation)

Vargha-Khadem study (1997)



- 3 patients who suffered early bilateral MTL injury




- Small bilaterial hippocampi


- intact extra-hippocampal TL




-Episodic memory impaired, but Semantic was fine


* Still able to acquire knowledge





Memory deficits of 3 patients

- Spatial, temporal and episodic memory affected


- could not be left alone




* All 3 did well academically (semantic info)




Intact semantic, impaired episodic = functionally dissociable




* Episodic relies on hippocampal circuit


-- Supports Tulving



V-K findings fit with what model?

Tulving's SPI model




- Episodic memory function relies on semantic memory




- Semantic memory can still work when episodic is impaired.




*but Tulving does not always apply



Amnestic patients suffer from what kind of memory deficits?

Declarative (facts) -


- esp Episodic (personal events)







*TULVING

EPISODIC RELIES ON OTHER SYSTEMS BUT IS DISSOCIABLE FROM SEMANTIC