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Von Wright


1975

Broadbent's filter theory, words paired with shocks, GSR showed a reaction when words presented in unattended channel, unaware words were presented

GSR

McKay


1973

Deutsch and deutsch late selection model, good meaning analysis in unattended channel

Meaning analysis

Treisman & Riley


1969

Deutsch and deutsch late selection model, better meaning analysis on attended channel, should be no difference if all stimuli were fully analyses

Better meaning analysis

Woldorff


1993

Selective attention, event related potentials, smaller activity for sounds in unattended ear, still some activity

ERPs

Coch


2005

Selective attention, event related potentials in dichotomy listening task, greater in attended ear 100 ms after presentation, attended processed more

ERPs, dichotic listening

Gray


1960

Selective attention, dichotic listening task, "who 6 there" "4 goes 1", order of report determined by meaning, selection based on semantics

Sperling


1960

Multi store model, sensory store, records all info, fragile, 3-4 items but longer delay = fewer items

Miller


1956

Short term memory, 7+/- 2 items

7

Gowan


2000

Short term memory, ~4 items

~4

Larsden, Baddeley & Andrade


2000

Working memory, phonological loop, 25% worse recall for phonologically similar words, speech based rehearsal

Phonologically similar

Mueller


2003

Working memory, phonological loop, lower memory span with longer words, loop capacity determined by temporal duration

Temporal duration

Majerus


2006

Working memory, phonological loop, capacity predicts vocabulary size

Vocabulary size

Papagno, Valentine & Baddeley


1991

Working memory, phonological loop, articulatory suppression disrupts foreign-native word pairs but not native-native, implications for learning languages

Native-native

Logie


1995

Working memory, visuospatial sketchpad, visual cache & inner scribe

Cache, scribe

Klauer & Zhao


2004

Working memory, 2 tasks for same slave system = impaired performance, not impaired if in different slave systems

2 tasks

Logie


2004

Working memory, central executive, fMRI studies show activation in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in dual tasks only

Dorsolateral

Baddeley


2002

Working memory, episodic buffer, good immediate recall dependent on capacity of EB and and efficient CE that is able to use the EB as a mediator

Episodic buffer, immediate recall

Peterson & Peterson


1959

Forgetting, 90% of STM forgotten jn 18 seconds without rehearsal, but counted backwards in 3s so trace decay or displacement?

18 seconds

Jacoby, Debner & Hay


2001

Forgetting, proactive interference, the bias towards older responses is due to a stronger association

Proactive, association

Dewar


2007

Forgetting, retroactive interference, occurs when new info is similar to old info

Retroactive, similar

Kane & Engle


2000

Forgetting, proactive interference, better able to resist if you have high attentional capacity

Proactive, attentional capacity

Goddenn & Baddeley


1975

Forgetting, encoding specificity principle, divers learnt on the beach or in the water, recall was best in the same environment

Divers

Thomson & Tulving


1976

Forgetting, encoding specificity principle, best recall with strong cues, worst with weak or mismatched cues

Strong cues

Teasdale & Russel


1983

Forgetting, state dependent forgetting, bipolar, remembered positive or negative words more when in the corresponding emotional state

State dependent forgetting

Linton


1975

Motivated forgetting, bias towards recall of pleasant memories

Ekstrand


1972

Forgetting, consolidation theory, sleeping after learning produces higher recall than being awake (81% vs 66%) due to consolidation earlier in the process

Consolidation, sleeping

Rosen


1999

Attention, fMRI scans show higher activity with endogenous attention, effort full control

fMRI, endogenous

Bohannon


1988

Flashbulb memories, stabilised if retrieved often

Flashbulb, retrieved

Winningham


2000

Flashbulb, change considerably when first formed before becoming consistent, ebbinghaus curve

Flashbulb, ebbinghaus

Talarico & Rubin


2003

Flashbulb memories, more vivid and accurate than everyday memories

Flashbulb, vivid

Cubelli & Della Salla


2008

Flashbulb memories, distinctive memories, no interference from similar events

Flashbulb, distinctive

Wade, Goring, Read & Lindsay


2002

False memories, false photos from childhood, believed it after the 3rd interview and told the story of the photo

Leif & Fetkewicz


1995

Recovered memories, memories recovered in therapy more likely to be false than spontaneously recalled

Loftus & Palmer


1974

Eyewitness testimonies, leading questions, watched the video of a car crash, contacted = lowest estimate of speed, smashed = highest

Loftus


1979

Eyewitness testimonies, focus effect, less likely to correctly identify a target when holding a weapon, attention drawn away from person

Valentine


2003

Eyewitness testimonies, focus effect, didn't affect identification of suspect in real life crimes

Forgetting

Encoding failure, attention/rehearsal, ST capacity, trace decay, activated, excitation, 90% 18 seconds, displacement, capacity, recency, interference, compete, retroactive, proactive, retrieval failure, temporarily inaccessible, encoding specificity principle, cues, divers, state dependent, motivated, supression or regression, pain anxiety guilt, bias pleasant, consolidation, days to fix, vulnerable, sleeping