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37 Cards in this Set

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pycholinguistics

the study of language from the perspective of psychology; the study of language behaviour and processes

linguistic universals

features and characteristics that are universally true to all human languages

semanticity

One of Hocketts linguistic universals, expression the fact that elements of language convey meaning

Arbitrariness

ones of Hocketts linguistic universals, that the connections between linguistic units ( sounds, words) and the concepts of meanings referred to by those units.

flexibility of symbols

characteristic that enables the meaning of a language symbol to be changed and enables new symbols to be added to the language

Naming

The characteristic that human languages habe names and labels for all objects and concepts encountered by the speaker of the language

Displacement

One of Hocketts linguistic universals, referring to the fact that language permits us to talk about times other than the immediate present, language allows us to displace ourselves in time, by talking about past, present and future

competence

the internalized knowledge or language and its rules that fully fluent speakers of a language posses, uncontaminated by flaws in performance that are unacceptable

performance

any observable behaviour in the context of linguistics, any behaviour related to language( speech) influenced not only by linguistic factors but also by factors related to lapses in attention, memory and so on

dysfluency

erro, flaw or irregularity in spoken speech

linguistic intuition

Ones subjective judgement that a sentence is or is not acceptable or correct, the basis for most theorizing in linguistics

Linguistics relativity hypothesis

the hypothesis credited by Whorf, the ones language determines or at least influences strongly, what one can think about.

phonology

The study of sounds of language,including how they are produced and how they are perceived

phoneme

a sound or set of sounds judged to be the same by the speaker of a language. Note that because of categorical perception,we tend to judge some physically different sounds as the same and other different sounds as different, that is, belonging to a different phoneme category

categorical perception

the perception of similar language sounds as being the same phoneme, despite the minor physical differences among them


eg. cool and keep as both being the K ( hard c) phoneme, even though these initial sounds differ physically

Phonemic competence

ones basic knowledge of the phonology of the language

Problem of invariance

problem that spoken sounds are not invariant, that they change depending on what sounds precedes and follow in the word

co-articulation

the simultaneous or overlapping articulation of two or more of the phonemes in a word

deep structure

A deep structure is presumably the most basic and abstract level of representation of a sentence or idea

phrase structure

the underlying structure of a sentence in terms of the groups of words into meaningful phrases, such as the young man ran quickly

syntax

the arrangement of words as elements in a sentence to show their relationship to one another, grammatical structure, the rules governing the order of words in a sentence

surface structure

the actual form of a sentence whether written or spoken, the literal string of words or sounds present in a sentence

ambiguos

having more than one meaning said both words and sentences

parse

to divide or separate the words in a sentence into logical or meaningful groupings

transformational rules

in Chomskys transformational grammar, the syntactic rules that transform an idea into its surface structure for instance, rules that form a passive sentence or a negative sentence

transformational grammar

chomskys theory of the structure of language, a combination of a phrase structure grammar and a set of transformational rules

semantics

the study of meaning

morpheme

the smallest unit of meaning in language

case grammar

an approach in psycholinguistics in which the meaning of a sentence is determined by analyzing the semantic roles of cases played by different words, such as which word names the overall relationship and which names the agent or patient of the action. Other cases include time, location and manner

semantic cases

in case grammar approach, the particular case played by a word or concept is said to be the words semantic case

case role

one of the various semantic roles or functions of different words in a sentence

garden path sentence

a sentence in which an early word or phrase tends to be misinterpreted and thus must be reinterpreted after the mistake is noticed



aphasia

a loss of some or all of previously intact language skills, caused by brain disorder or damage


- disruption of language

Brocas aphasia

severe difficulties in producing spoken speech, that is, the speech is hesitant, effortful and distorted phonemically


-an area toward left frontal lobe, lies adjacent to a major motor control centre in the brain


- accounts for motor difficulties of aphasia, the inability to produce fluent spoken speech

Wernickes aphasia

language disorder, is characterized by a serious disruption of comprehension and the use of invented words as well as semantically inappropriate substitutions


- the aphasia is caused by damage in the region of the neocortex


-syntactic aspects of speech are preserved


- left hemisphere region


- toward rear of left temporal lobe


- adjacent to the auditory cortex, in the left temporal lobe.

conduction aphasia

a disruption of language in which person is unable to repeat what has just been heard

Anomia

a disruption of word finding or retrieval caused by a brain disorder or injury