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357 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Define Hematopoiesis

Production of blood cells

Define Granulopoiesis

Production of granulocytes

Define Erythropoiesis

Production of RBCs

Define Thrombopoiesis

Production of platelets

What is Erythropoietin

A hormone produced by the kidney, stimulates the production of RBCs. can be used as a palliative treatment for animals with kidney disease

What is Thrombopoietin

A hormone which stimulates the production of Platelets

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by __________


Thrombopoiesis is stimulated by _________


Hematopoiesis can occur in what other tissues other than the Bone Marrow

Liver, Spleen, and rarely in the Lymph nodes, thymus

What is a stem cell?

A cell that has the capacity to differentiate into specialized cell types

There is not a common stem cell for Neutrophils and monocytes. true or false?

False, there is a common stem cell for neutrophils and monocytes

How is the Maturation time of granulocytes affected by inflammation?- what is the normal production time for them? what do the cells that are created during shortened maturation time look like?

The time is shortened. as there is an increased demand for neutrophils,- 6 days

toxic changes- color, shape, size

In Rbcs, as the cell looses basophilia it gains ____________


When neutrophil concentration in peripheral blood increases, what other cell also commonly increases in concentration.


what is "Toxic change"

If the bone marrow needs to it can increase production, however instead of coming out normally they have Toxic changes which can cause them to be more basophilic, more vaculated, or have other cellular abnormalities.

What does the Nucleus of the Myeloblast look like?

- Very Fine/granular chromatin

- Nucleoli

What does the Cytoplasm of the myeloblast look like?

- Deeply basophilic

- No granules

What does the Nucleus of the Promyelocyte look like?

-Fine chromatin

- +/- Nucleoli

What does the cytoplasm of the promyelocyte look like?

- Basophilic

-Azurophilic granules

What doe the Nucleus of the Myelocyte look like?

-coarse, clumped chromatin

-no nucleoli

What does the Cytoplasm of the myelocyte look like?

- similar to neutrophil, slightly more basophilic

- secondary granules

- no primary granules

What does the Nucleus of the Metamyelocyte look like?

-Coarse, clumped chromatin

-shallow indent (bean, or fat hourglass)

what does the cytoplasm of the metamyelocyte look like?

-similar to mature cell, may be slightly basophlic

What does the nucleus of a Band look like?

- Coarse, clumped, condensed chromatin

- sausage shaped

- "Parallel" sides

- Thicker than the nucleus of a neutrophil

What does the cytoplasm of the band look like?

-similar to mature cell, slightly basophilic.

In what order does the precurser WBCs develop?

1. Myeloblast

2. promyelocyte

3. myelocyte

4. metamyelocyte

5. band

6. Neutrophil

Where does erythropoiesis occur?

Primarily in the bone marrow

Erythropoiesis takes how long?

and what things does it need to be preformed?

4-6 days, cannot be sped up.

Protein, iron, copper, cobalt and vitamins

With RBCs we don't get a change in granulation, whereas what changes dramatically?

Chromatin and colour changes dramatically in RBC maturation.

What is a Pluripotent stem cell?

Produces RBCs, WBCs and platelets

Compared to granulocytic precursors, erythroid precursors are...

- Smaller

- more basophilic when young

- have very round nucleus

what does the Nucleus of the Rubriblast look like?

- large round nucleus

- delicate, stippled chromatin


what does the cytoplasm of the Rubriblast look like?

- thin rim

- royal blue

- perinuclear clear zone

what does the nucleus of the prorubricyte look like?

- Nucleoli usually disappear

- chromatin is slightly more coarse than a rubriblast

What does the cytoplasm of the prorubricyte look like?

- Royal blue

-prominent perinuclear clear zone

What does the nucleus of a Rubricyte look like?

- Relatively large, "juicy nucleus"

- alternating light and dark clumps of chromatin

What does the cytoplasm of a Rubricyte look like?

- usually varies from intensely basophilic to polychromatic (grey-blue)

true or false, a basophilic rubricyte is usually smaller than a polychromatic rubricyte


the basophilic rubricyte is usually larger. and has a more condensed nucleus

What does the Nucleus of a Metarubricyte look like?

- Small

-pyknotic (dark and shrivelled)

What does the cytoplasm of a metarubricyte look like?

- relatively more cytoplasm than a rubricyte

- polychromatic or eosinophilic.

what species never has polychromatic RBCS in circulation?

Polychromatic's are called what when stained with NMB?



when a cell is between two stages what should you call it?

call it the more mature

How are WBCs/precurses reported during a differantial cell count?

WBCs are named specifically & counted as part of the differentiall cell count, i.e. part of the 100%

How are nRBCs reported during a differential cell count?

nRBCs are named specifically and are reported as # per 100 WBCs

when Rbcs are destroyed they are metabolized into what?

- iron

- protein

- bilirubin

what is the bilirubin cycle

1. rbcs are broken down into heme.

2. the heme turns into unconjugated bilirubin

3. the conjugated bilirubin goes to the liver to become conjugated

4. the conjugated bilirubin comes out in the urine, or gets stored in the gallbladder, until it is needed.

5. it is then moved into the bile duct and becomes stercobilinogin in the feces, or urobilinogin which is recirculated by the body.

What does IMHA mean?

Immune Mediated Hemolytic Anemia

What is IMHA?

It is the destruction f RBCs by the immune system, resulting in anemia.

the animals immune system attacks its own cells

due to the excessive RBC destruction during IMHA, what will there be an increased production of?

There will be an increased production of both Unconjugated and Conjugated bilirubin.

What Causes IMHA?

- when the RBCs are coated with immunoglobulins or compliment (secondary to many causes including neoplasia, antibiotic therapy, vaccines etc)

- the body recognizes RBCs as "Foreign" and destroys them.

What is Intravascular Hemolysis

i.e. ghost cells

- membrane only

-hemoglobin has been lost

What is Extravascular Hemolysis

i.e. Spherocytes

- smaller, darker, with no central pallor

What is a leptocyte? why are they formed?

Leptocyte- an rbc with a misshapen area of pallor

they are formed when cells are large and less flexible than normal.

What increased number of Howell-Jolly bodies indicate?

It indicates decreased Splenic function

What are the clinical signs of IMHA?

- often vague

- poor appetite

- listless

- weak

- pale Mucous Membranes

true or false:

the presence of spherocytes is highly suggestive of IMHA


Agglutination is diagnostic for IMHA, if agglutination if not present what test should be preformed?

a Coomb's test

why is it important to recognize normal RBCs?

so that abnormalities can be detected.

In dogs, what size, size variation, and central pallor is normal?

- about 7um

- large central pallor

- no anisocytosis

In Cats, what size, size variation, and central pallor is normal?

- about 5.8um

- small central pallor

- some anisocytosis

What is the function of RBCs?

- use hemoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide

- removal of wastes from plasma

what are the clinical signs of Anemia

- lethargy, fatigue, weakness

-tachypnea & tachycardia

- possibly a systolic heart murmur

what is the lifespan of RBCS?

- varies between species

- approx. 10-22 weeks

-100 days in dogs

which of the byproducts of RBC metabolism are recycled


- Globin

How is RBC number presented

__ x 10^12/L

What are the 2 units Microhematocrit (PCV) is presented?

Traditional: __%

SI: __ L/L

true or false: Hematocrit is presnted in the same units as microhematocrit (Traditional and SI units)


What are the units for Hemoglobin, what is it?


Hemoglobin is the TOTAL amount of hemoglibin in a volume of blood

What Does anemia mean (Hint: theres more than one answer)

Anemia: Decreased RBC numbers ORhematocrit/PCV OR hemoglobin concentration in the blood

Define Polycythemia

Increased concentration of RBCs inthe blood. RBC numbers and/or hematocrit/PCV and/or hemoglobinconcentration are increased.

what is responsible for the pink color of RBCs

The Hemoglobin

"Hb" on an erythrogram refers to what?

The total hemoglobin in the blood, NOT the amount of hemoglobin in a cell

what is Methemoglobin?

it is when cells cannot hold oxygen

What happens when Methemoglobin occurs?

- Mucous membranes appear cyanotic

- blood appears brown

when referring to colour we are referring to what saturation in the cells?

hemoglobin saturation.

what does MCH mean? and what does it refer to?

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

- it refers to the weight of the hemoglobin in an average RBC

What does MCHC mean? and what does it refer to?

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.

- it refers to the concentration of Hemoglobin in an average RBC (g/L)

A patient has a PCV of 0.20 L/L, hemoglobin of 72 g/L and a RBC count of 3.2 x 10^12/L what is MCH?

(MCH= Hemoglobin (g/L) / RBC #/L )

MCH = 72g/L / 3.2x10^12/L

= 22pg

( 72/3.2 = 22 )

- so MCH is calculated by dividing hemoglobin by RBC count number

A Patient has a PCV of 0.20 L/L,hemoglobin of 72 g/L and a RBC count of 3.2 x 10^12/L

What is the MCHC?

(MCHC= Hemoglobin (g/L) / PCV(L/L) )

MCHC = 72g/L / 0.20L/L

= 360g/L

(72/0.20 = 360)

-so MCHC is calculated by dviding hemoglobin by PCV

When hemoglobin concentration is Decreased, normal, increased is is referred to as

Decreased: Hypochromic

Normal: Normochromic

Increased: Hyperchromic. (cannot actually be hyperchromoic but can appear to be)

what is a femtoliter (fL)

- it is a unit expressed as "10^-15/L" used for MCV

true or false: an MCV is an average, an animal with small and large RBCs might not have a normal MCV

FALSE- their MCV may be normal, the average of a small RBC and a Large RBC = a regular RBC

What is meant by Mild Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell, plus 1/3 the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells

What is meant by Moderate Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell plus 2/3 the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells

what is meant by Marked Anisocytosis?

- the diameter of the smallest cell plus the diameter of a normal cell makes the largest cells.

What is a microcyte? what is a Macrocyte?

Microcyte- Small RBC

Macrocyte- Large RBC

How can Anemia be classified?

1. According to size, and hemoglobin saturation of RBCs

2. According to response

- responsive/ regenerative

-non-responsive/ non-regenerative

3. According to cause

RBC count determins what on an erythrogram?

- It determines if there is anemia. if the numbers are within reference values the animal is normal, if they are below reference values the animal is anemic.

MCV determines what on an erythrogram?

- It determines the size of the cell. whether it is normocytic, microcytic or macrocytic.

MCHC determines what on an erythrogram?

- it determines the chromasia of the cell. whether it is the hypochromic, normochromic, or hyperchrmoic.

- Sphereocytes appear what on a smear?


How would you describe a cell that has increased MCV and Normal MCHC

- Macrocytic


How would you describe a cell that has normal MCV and Decreased MCHC


- hypochromic

How would you describe a cell that is decreased MCV and decreased MCHC



What is expected to be found in a responsive anemia?

- the bone marrow releasing immature cells to replace the "missing" ones (the bone marrow is responding to the anemia, therefore it is responsive)

- increased concentration of polychrmoatic RBCs

- increased anisocytosis

if the anemia is regenerative MCV will be ______ and MCHC will be ______ since young RBCs are _________ and not fully hemoglobinized

If the anemia is regenerative, MCV will be __increased__ and MCHC will be __decreased__ since young RBCs are __larger__ and are not fully hemoglobinized.

True or false: the presence of Nucleated RBCs in the absence of increased polychrmoatic RBCs does indicate a response

False- it DOES NOT indicate a response.

What is a reticulocyte?

A reticulocyte is a polychromatic RBC that has been stained basophilic with a supravital stain

What are the two different kinds of reticulocytes in cats?

-aggregate (clumps or clusters of organelles)

-punctate (scattered individual organelles)

True or False: reticulocytes are a better indicator of bone marrow response the anemia than polychromasia

True. reticulocytes will give a definitive answer

True or False

when reporting RBC precursors, they are included in the differential cell count

False, they are NOT included in the differential cell count

An animal with increased MCH but decreased MCHC is decreased presumably, what do the cells look like in regards to color

The cells would appear Hypochromic

On a Erythrogram, how can you tell if an anemia is responsive or non-responsive?

If there is a more than normal # of polychromatic RBCs / reticulocytes than the anemia could be regenerative

What is the equation for corrected reticulocyte count?

Corrected reticulocyte % = origional count x patients PCV/"Normal" PCV

-Make sure to use the middle (or average) of the reference interval for the "Normaml

what does a RBC look like when it undergoes crenation?

even projections, and around edges only, they are often an artifact

Describe an Echinocyte:

Even projections, on all surfaces, a more severe form of crenation.

How does an Acanthocyte differ from and Echinocyte

an Acanthocyte has irregular spaced- blunt and a various lengthed projections, they are caused by liver disease and hemangiosarcoma. Echinocytes have even projections, and are a form of crenations.

An RBC that has projections on only one edge is a:

crenated RBC

An RBC that has even projections on all surfaces and is a form of crenation is a:


Describe an Ovaloechinocyte:

They have short projections and are oval in shape.

What is the #1 cause of crenated RBCs?

someone didn't dry the smear quick enough

Are Acanthocytes normally seen in normal blood, T/F?


Snake bites cause which of the following in RBCs?

a) Crenation

b) Echinocytosis

c) Acanthocytes to be present

d) Ovaloechinocytosis



A decrease in the PCV, RBC count or hemoglobin value s below normal values


variation in the size of cells


Cessation of blood cell formation

Basket cell

A free ruptured nucleus which has swollen so that separated chromatin can be seen


1. increased numbers of basophils in circulation

2. The blue staining of a structure with a Romanowsky

Buffy coat

The layer of WBCs, platelets and nucleated RBCs if present, that collects above the RBC's in sedimented or centrifuged blood


DNA which makes up the nucleus of a cell

Degenerative left shift

the number of immature, non-segmented neutrophils exceeds the number of mature, segmented neutrophils in circulation,

Doehle Body

Small, irregular, blue-grey body in the cytoplasm of neutrophils

residual RNA


increased concentration of eosinophils in circulation


Decreased concentration of eosinophils in circulation


the production of RBC's


the end product of coagulation.


A precision instrument for manually counting cells


A protein found in erythrocytes; composed of heme and globin


a condition in which free hemoglobin is present in the plasma


Destruction of RBCs


a neutrophil with six or more nuclear lobes


an adjective used to describe a RBC that shows a decrease in the density of hemoglobin present in the cell, resulting in increased central pallor


increased protein concentration in the blood


increased protein concentration in the blood


of unknown cause


pyknosis and fragmentation of the nucleus


neoplastic disease of the bone marrow and blood


of unknown cause


pyknosis and fragmentation of the nucleus


neoplastic disease of the bone marrow and blood


Blood being formed outside of the bone marrow, in the spleen, liver and lymph


Resembles leukemia by having a marked leukocytosis or by having a lot of immature cell in the blood

not due to neoplastic changes in the hematopoietic tissue

Left shift

Presence on an increased concentration of immature (non-segmented) neutrophil in the circulation


increased concentration of white blood cells in circulation


decreased concentration of white blood cells in circulation.


increased concentration of lymphocytes in circulation


decreased concentration of lymphocytes in circulation


an rbc that has a volume that is larger than normal


a cell that is larger than normal (adjective)


an increased number of large RBCs


A large platelet; at least as large as a normal RBC

Mast cell

A tissue cell which has granules that contain histamine & heparin


Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration


Mean corpuscular volume


An rbc with a volume which is smaller than normal


A cell that is smaller than normal(adjective)


An increased number of small RBC's


Increased concentration of monocytes in circulation


decreased concentration of neutrophils in circulation


increased concentration of neutrophils in circulation




a RBC with normal hemoglobin saturation (MCHC)


an adjective used to describe an RBC of normal size (volume)


A decrease in all blood cell (RBC, WBC and platelet) Lines


The fluid component of the blood


increased concentration of polychromatic RBCs in circulation


increased RBC Mass (PCV; RBC count) in the body


nuclear condensation and death


an increased concentration of reticulocytes in circulation

Right shift

Presence of an increased number of hypersegmented neutrophils in circulations.

Sedimentation rate

The rate at which "RBCs settle in their own plasma in a given amount or time"


The fluid component of the blood produced after the blood has been allowed to clot

Shift red blood cell

A RBC which is twice the size of a normal RBC and polychromatic

Smudge cell

A nucleated cell that was ruptured during smearing,

due to mechanical damage or increased fragility of cell,

chromatin has not spread out in distant strand (see "basket cell")

Supravital staining

use of stain that is taken up by a live cell so that "vital and functional processes" can be studied, eg. New Methylene Blue or brilliant cresyl blue


Decreased concentration of platelets (thrombocyte) in circulation


increased concentration of platelets (thrombocytes) in circulation

Toxic neutrophil

A neutrophil showing certain morphologic changes such as vacuolation, toxic granule, increased basophilia and/or nuclear changes.

Does a patient have to be anemic to see Acanthocytes


When will a cell spiculate?

if a smear is to thick

or if a smear is not dried quickly

or if the sample is aging


general term for RBC with an area of pallor that is oddly shaped and large and and less flexable

Target Cell

also called a codocyte "bulls eye"


a RBC with a central slit

Bar Cell

central bar of hemoglobin visible

Describe apple stem cell

it has one stalk or projection

Descibe keratocyte

has two horns or projections

HOW much is this worth?



has membrane stuck together on one side fused


the eccentrocyte but without the membrane


Cell is spherical, rather than biconcave, smaller & darker than a normal RBC

no central pallor- only identified in species with a large zone of central pallor

Eccentrocytes are not always abnormal t/f


What is the difference between elliptocytes and ovalocytes?

elliptocytes are cigar- shaped

ovalocytes are egg- shaped

Elliptocytes and ovalocytes are normal in what species?

Camelids- camels, alpacas, llamas,

birds, reptiles

What are fragmented RBC's usually caused by?

Shearing damage by fibrin or movement through tortuous vessels - hemangiosarcoma or inflammation, RBCs hitting the fibrin.

Schistocytosis in patients with thrombocytopenia is highly suggestive of

DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation,

medical emergency. but can also be seen with iron deficiency.


Any odd- shaped RBC,

Use only when shape change cannot be specifically identified


a RBC fragment

usually up to 1/3 RBC in size

torn off of an RBC

Fragmented RBCs

Torn RBCs are obviouslt torn but are the cell portion

Ghost Cell

Has lost its hemoglobin

membrane only

Smudged RBCs

Blurred edges

frequent with lipemia

Hemoglobin Crystal

one or more rectangular pink crystals



makesure these are not just stretched

describe Basophilic stippling

variable size, lighter than howell-jolly bodies

What is Basophilic stippling indicative of?

Regenerative anemia (ruminants and cats)

as well heavy metal poisoning

what causes howell- jolly bodys and what is the normal value of them in cats and horses. and what are they a remnant of

round nuclear remnant

normal in cats and horses (up to 1%)

lack of splenic function

describe heinz bodies and how to identify and also what they are caused by and also what color they stain

only stain blue with NMD or brilliant Cresyl blue; pink with routine stains

caused by oxidative damage

lead poisoning will cause

a) basophilic stippling

b) heinz bodies

a) basophilic stippling

describe Heinz bodies

often have a clear area at the base may be on top of the cell and will appear as round pale areas

colourless and retractile in unstained wet preparations, basophilic with NMB or brilliant cresyl blue.

what is Rouleaux?

Stacking of RBCs

True or false marked rouleaux is normal in cats

false moderate

marked is horses and

mild is dogs

t/f rouleaux is increased with hyperproteinemia


Agglutination is when

RBCs stick together in clumps

what does agglutination indicate?

an immune mediated hemolytic process

immune- mediated hemolytic process is confirmed with :

a saline agglutination test

blood mixed with normal saline 1:4

check a wet prep for the presence of agglutination

what is it meant when the term Lipemic artifact is used

when RBCs appear smudged and misshapen

poikilocytosis can not be reliably identified on these smears

what number do you use to assess WBC s

Absolute numbers

what is the only exception to the rule that the number of decimal places of the absolute numbers should match the number of decimal places of the WBC count

if the number is very small and would otherwise round to zero, please leave an extra decimal place

Blood is only collected from the

a) marginated pool

b) circulating pool

c) swimming pool

d) blood vessel

circulating pool

cells move freely between ---------- and ------------- pools.

Circulation and marginating pool

Cells marginate after moving into tissues t/f

false before

leukocytosis can be due to:

increase is any type of WBC or a combination of different types of WBCs

most frequently due to neutrophilia +-monocytosis, and occ lymphocytosis

what is neutrophilia caused by?

inflammation- fast acting

stress- neutrophil demarginate

exercise/ epinephrine


inflammation = infection? t/f


What change may be seen initially in the circulating neutrophil concentration?

Neutrophils are first released frommarrow granulocyte reserve pool• Granulopoiesisis stimulated• As supply of mature neutrophils isdepleted, less mature neutrophils are released, i.e. a LEFT SHIFT is seen in circulating blood

define left shift

an increased concentration of immature, non segmented neutrophil in circulation

an inflammatory leukogram has to have a left shift. t/f.

False does not

accelerated granulopoiesis may result in------------ changes.


in established (chronic) inflammation, what change in production of blood cells happens?

the bone marrows capacity for granulopoiesis is increased, bone marrow can "keep up" with increased demand

neutrophilia, but no left shift

often a monocytosis is seem.

what change in cell numbers are seen in stress/ corticosteroid cases?

Lymphopenia isthe most common changeEosinopeniaoften not seen due to low “normal” reference valuesChangesoccur within 6 hours

what change in cell number are seen in exercise/ epinephrine cases?

Lymphocytosis is most frequently seen in cats & young animalsChanges are almost IMMEDIATE, but disappear within a few hours once the patient is calm/rested

What is Leukemia?

The presence of neoplastic (cancerous)cells in circulation or the bone marrow

what are the two types of leukemia?

Myelogenous leukemia

Lymphocytic leukemia

General causes of Neutropenia?

1.Decreased productionLack of hematopoietic space InfectionsDrugs (not being made)

2.Overwhelming tissuedemand/Decreased survival (leaving)

3.Sequestration (hidden)

Neutropenia due to decrease production is because of:

lack of hematopoietic space:


affects all cell lines



feline distemper

feline leukemia



Neutropenia due to increased tissue demand/ decreased survival can be due to:

severe bacterial infections

toxic changes seen often with degenerative left shift

if a neutropenia is seen to check for bacterial infections do a buffy coat to check for bacteria


Buffy coat: how do you preform it?

Spin microhematocrit,as usual- Score the tube (to weaken it) justabove the buffy coatBreak the tube where it is scoredInsert a paper clip into thesealant at the bottom of the tubePush until the buffy coat comes outthe topDab buffy coat on a slideSmear and stain as usual

Degenerative left shift is:

The number of immature, non-segmented neutrophil (bands and younger) outnumber the number of mature neutrophils, bone marrow just cant keep up man!

Sequestration is when neutrophils are:

hidden in the margination pool- allergic reaction. or due to anaphylaxis or endotoxemia (from bacterial infection)

Lymphocytosis is caused by?

1.Physiologic– excitement/epinephrine

2.Chronic immune stimulusRemember what lymphocytes do


1.Animalexcited, young, active, they also get a neutrophilia that goes along with it,will go away within a few hours,

2.Something that stimulates body tomount an immune response, - lymphocytes make anitbodies- if there is an infection and there isan ongoing intruder –it is common to see lyphocytosis

3.Lymphoblastic leukemia also named

if the patient was upset there may be an alteration in lymphocytosis. t/f


immunoglobins are antibodies to something, if seen is high numbers this case can be an immune respond. t/f?


Lymphopenia is cause by:

1.Stress/corticosteroids- ear meds, cushings, biological strss

2.Renal disease

3.Viral damage to lymphoid tissue

4.Loss/sequestration/blockage of lymphRemember lymphocytes re-circulate

Eosinophilia is caused by:



Specific eosinophilicdiseases

Inflammation of tissues with lotsof mast cells- similar granules to basophils

Remember mast cells containhistamine & eosinophils havean anti-histamine action

basophilia is caused by:

heartworm disease- commonly

mast cell neoplasia

please fill in the chart for the WBCs for the causes of changes in leukocyte concentrations

Myogobinurea is caused by:

Muscle breakdown, and muscles release the myoglobin, to the blood steam,

tying up

Morphologic changes can occur in the absence of changes in cell -----------. i.e


toxic changes


changes diagnostic for a specific disease, eg. distemper inclusions

inclusions- phagocytosed material, organisms, cellular debris


Machines cannot detect morphologic changes t/f


All routine morphology should be assessed in the

Optimal viewing area

normal PCV: for cats and dogs

cats: 37-55

dogs: 27-45

Middle range 36, 46

The feathered edge is checked for ----------- & ----------- cells.

Large & unusual

What did a bilobed neutrophil start out as?

a myelocyte

Giant Neutrophils

Diameter is >16 um

- Compare with RBCs

Do giant neutrophils mature without the cell dividing normally?


Giant neutrophils are common in which species


What is increased Cytoplasmic Basophilia due to:


short maturation time or an interference with maturation

describe Cytoplasmic Basophilia:

often streaky or blotchy in appearance

where do you look for vacuolation on the cells:

the edges

If increased cytoplasmic basophilia is present than there are often vacuoles present, t/f?


What do indistinct "holes" or cytoplasmic vacuolation look like?

Motheaten or foaminess

what are large punctate vacuoles usually due to?

and artifact of (EDTA)

Doehle bodies are remnants of what?


What do Doehle Bodies look like?

small, irregular, blue grey bodies

Doehle bodies are common in which species?


Doehle bodies can form in blood if it is stored prior to smearing t/f?

True 15MINUTES!##@#@#%@%@#%@#%

describe hypersegmentation:

6 or more nuclear lobes

what is hypersegmentation due to?


when does hypersegmentation occur?

when A cell has stayed in circulation for longer than usual.

Hypersegmentation is a toxic change t/f?


What is a Right shift?

Presence of Hypersegmented cells

Pelger- Huet Anomaly is a Left shift t/f?


What does the Pelger-huet anomaly look like?

condensed chromatin but not constricted.

Not all neutrophils are effected with a patient with pelger-huet anomaly t/f?

false ALL neutrophils are affected.

neutrophils are the only cell affected by pelger huet anomaly t/f?


others are too- check the eosinophils

Toxic Granulation is :

retained primary granules

what is the difference between toxic granules and normal neutrophil granules?

toxic granules are more dark than normal neutrophil granules

Toxic Granulation is most common in dogs t/f?


Name 4 nuclear changes to the shape or lobulation of the neutrophils:



Pyknosis/ karyorrhexis

donut nuclei

nuclear change: hyposegmentation is also known as left shift? t/f?


What are some changes seen in the chromatin of nuclear changes

mitotic figures

nuclear/ cytoplasmic asynchrony or nuclear immaturity.

Barr body look like:

a small drumstick- like nuclear appendage

Barr bodys are often seen in male animals? t/f?


females ore hermaphrodites

doughnut or ring nucleuses are often seen in cats t/f?


doughnut or ring nucleus are only seen in neutrophils? t/f

false, both neutrophils and bands can see this change.

Describe Pyknosis and Karyorrhexis

nucleus shrunken and condensed

how do pyknosis and karyorrhexis differ?

the number of "balls"

p- nuclei form one "ball"

k- nuclei form two "balls"

Pyknosis and karyorrhexis are seen in samples that are not processed immediately t/f?


what is nuclear/ cytoplasmic asynchrony or immature chromatin?

the maturity of the nucleus/ chromatin does not "fit" with the maturity of the cytoplasm or nuclear shape

Bilobed Neutrophils is NEVER normal.

false- normal in Elephants

What WBC changes are considered toxic?

Doehle bodies

cytoplasmic basophilia and vacuolation

donut nuclei

giant neutrophils

toxic granulation

Toxic neutrophils are caused by what?

Accelerated granulopoiesis...


sepsis causes toxic neutrophils t/f

false, but they are often seen in septic patients

how do you report the morphologic change of doehle bodies, cytoplasmic basophilia, foamy cytoplasm?

few- 5-10%

moderate- 11-30%

many- > 30 %

how do you report the morphologic change of giant neutrophils, doughnut nucleus, bilobed neutrophils, hypersegmented neutrophils, barr bodies, pyknosis/karyorrhexis, reactive lymphocytes, atypical lymphocytes

check box if present.

describe granular lymphocytes

they have a collection of large azurophilic granules,

granular lymphocytes are not frequently seen in low numbers in sheep? t/f

false they are seen frequently

granular lymphocytes often indicate what?

inflammation, but can be seen in neoplastic cells

Describe a reactive lymphocyte.


royal blue cytoplasm

perinuclear clear zone

nucleus may be indicated

may have vacuoles

describe a lymphoblast

they have one or more nucleoli

usually large

chromatin is finer and more dispersed

often have moderately to deeply basophilic cytoplasm

describe an atypical Lymphocyte

Nucleus has deep clefts or multiple infoldings

May have dark blue or abundant cytoplasm doesn't look right, if a lymphocyte looks "ODD" but you can't classify it call it "atypical"

describe small lymphocytes

smaller than a neutrophil

nucleus ~ 1 RBC

Describe Plasma cells

deeply basophilic cytoplasm

prominent perinuclear clear zone

eccentric nucleus

Describe Lymphoblasts

Stippled chromatin

prominent nucleolus

moderate to deeply basophilic cytoplasm

what are some breakdown products of RBC's

Hemosiderin and hematoidin,

what are some Phagocytosed material

infectious organisms


hemosiderin and hematoidin

cellular debris

what is Chédiak-Higashi Syndrome ?

what does it look like?...... "dont memorize"

inherited syndorme

mostly in cattle and persian cats

partial oculo-cutaneous albinism

large, pink- purple granules

Describe mast cells, where they are found on smear, and why they are caused and example

Round to oval with an oval nucleusand abundant deep purple granules

Most commonly seen in the featherededgeCan also check a buffy coat smear

May be due to inflammatory diseaseor may be systemic mastocytosis example hit by car trauma

where do cell tumors form?


what is leukoagglutination?

Clumping of WBCs in peripheral blood

Usually an artifact due to prolonged storage

Can be due to EDTA Try a different anticoagulantCan affect automated counts

what does leukoagglutination effect? what can you try to fix it?

effects count and differential, try anticoagulation.

what is distemper viral inclusions, what are they used to diagnose.

Round, pale basophilic to magenta, intracytoplasmicinclusionsCan also be seen in RBCs Diagnosticfor CANINE DISTEMPER

What are some organisms that affect WBCs


Hemogregarines- Hepatazoonspp.

Leukocytozoon spp.

See Blood-borne Organisms lecture

What are the normal #'s of polychromatic RBCs seen in dogs, and cats,

dogs ( up to 1%)

and cats ( up to 0.3%)

When are polychromatic RBCs released in Cattle, Sheep, and Goats.

Only if they are needed.

Describe the destruction of RBC's

they are picked up by the reticuloendothelial cells, especially in the spleen, then they are metabolized to iron, protein, & bilirubin,

iron is stored for reuse and, proteins are broken down stored in the amino acid pool, bilirubin comes from heme, as unconjugated bilirubin, then goes to the liver and it changes it to conjugated bilirubin- stored in the gull bladder, and then goes to the bile duct and to the intestine which changes it to stercobilinogon and urobilinogen,

What are the clinical signs of IMHA

Often vague

Poor appetite



Pale mucous membranes

in what order should you asses all the features of the WBCs

- Maturation/precursors

- Size

- Cytoplasm

- Nucleus

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic changes

- Cytoplasmic Basophilia

- Cytoplasmic Vaculation

- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
Toxic changes

- Cytoplasmic Basophilia

- Cytoplasmic Vaculation

- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic Changes:

- Toxic granulation

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Toxic Changes:

- Cytoplasmic Basophilia

- cytoplasmic vaculation

Doehle bodies

- Giant Neutrophil (16 micrometers or larger)

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not toxic:

- Hypersegmentation (6 or more nuclear lobes present)

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:

- Pyknosis

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:

- Karyorrhexis

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?


- Cytoplasmic Basophilia

- Cytoplasmic Vaculation

- Doehle Bodies

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?


Donut Band

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:

- Smudge

What Changes are occurring to this WBC?
What Changes are occurring to this WBC?

Not Toxic:

- Basket

What is occurring in this Picture?

What is occurring in this Picture?


With Giant Neutrophils the Nucleus _______ without the cell __________ normally

With Giant Neutrophils the Nucleus matures without the cell dividing normally

What is increased Cytoplasmic Basophilia caused by?

It is due to retained RNA, and a to short maturation time or something interfering with maturation.

What do Doehle Bodies look like and how could they be formed?

They are small, irregular, blue-grey bodies. can form if the blood is stored prior to smearing or if left in EDTA

What is Toxic granulation

It is retained primary granules, they are more prominent and darker than normal neutrophil granules. it is very uncommon.

Hypersegmentation- a cell that has _________ in circulation for _______ than usual.

Hypersegmentation- a cell that has stayed in circulation for Longer than usual.

What is The presence of Hypersegmented cells known as?

A Right Shift

What is the Pelger-Huet Anomaly?

It is when chromatin is condensed, but not constricted, Neuclei do not segment normally and will affect all Neutrophils.

What is a Barr Body and where are they seen?

They are small drumstick-like appendages coming off the nucleus, it is seen only in females (or hermaphrodites) as it is due to a second "X" Chromosome.

Can a Donut Cell be seen in a Band or a Neutrophil? or both?

It can be seen in both, differentiation depends on the width of the nucleus.

NOTE: do not misidentify as just a normal cell with overlapping ends.

Identify and comment on the Nucleated cells

Identify and comment on the Nucleated cells

Left: Toxic Neutrophil - Cytoplasmis Basophilia

Right: Toxic neutrophil. - Giant, Donut, Cytoplasmic Basophilia

With Pyknosis the Nucleus is _______ and _______ (Dead)

With Pyknosis the Nucleus is Shrunken and Condensed (Dead)
What is this?
What is this?

A Mitotic Figure (Mitotic cell)

Is the Presence of a Bilobed Neutrophil a toxic change?


What changes in WBCs are considered toxic?

Doehle Bodies, Cytoplasmic Basoplilia and Vaculation, Donut nuclei, giant neutrophils, toxic granulation.

What are toxic neutrophils caused by?

caused by accelerated granulopoesis, such as that in Inflammation.

What kind of cell is this?

What kind of cell is this?

Small Lymphocyte (the size of one RBC)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Medium Lymphocyte (The size of 2 RBCs)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Large Lymphocyte (the size of 3 or more RBCs)

What kind of cell is this?

What kind of cell is this?

Reactive Lymphocyte (may have vaculation, indented nucleus, perinuclearclear zone)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Granular Lymphocyte

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Lymphoblast (one or more Nucleoli)

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Atypical Lymphocyte

What kind of cell is this?
What kind of cell is this?

Plasma Cell (a cell that is producing antibodies, a B Lymphocyte)

Can granular lymphocytes be seen in low numbers in normal animals?


Describe a Lymphoblast (Necleus, size, chromatin, cytoplasm)

-one or more Nucleoli

-usually large

-Chromatin is finer + more dispersed

-moderatly to deeply basophilic cytoplasm

what is the fuzzy round inclusions on the nucleated cell

what is the fuzzy round inclusions on the nucleated cell

Distemper viral Inclusion

What is this image showing?

What is this image showing?


What is the syndrome being presented in this image?

What is the syndrome being presented in this image?

The Chediak-Higashi Syndrome.