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13 Cards in this Set

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Lisa Mosconi (2005)

Aim: to find earliest signs of Alzheimer's disease in brain (looking at metabolism rates)

Method: longitudinal study following 53 normal/healthy patients (9-24 yrs) then at end given PET scan (to measure important brain functions)

Results: individuals showing early signs of metabolism in hippocampus were associated w/ later development of Alzheimer's

Conclusion: correlation b/n reduced metabolic rate/those who eventually developed Alzheimer's; technology can pick initial stages of memory deterioration accurately

Loftus & Palmer (1974)

Aim: to prove the unreliability/reconstructive nature of memory process

Method: 45 students shown videos of car crashes, then asked Q's about specifics of crashes; critical Q was "About how fast was the car going when it _____ the others?" (filled in w/ smashed, collided, bumped, contacted)

Results: those who were asked w/ smashed=avg speed of 40.8MPH, w/ contacted= avg speed of 31.8MPH

Conclusion: phrasing of a Q brought a change in estimated speed, due to schema activated by chosen verb; shows that schema process can affect memory; displays unreliability of reconstructive memory

Bartlett (1932)

Aim: to investigate whether people's memory fora story is affected by previous knowledge/schemas & the extent to which memory is reconstructive

Method: 20 British participants read an unfamiliar Native American legend ("War of the Ghosts"); after 2 readings, asked to repeat story immediately, then over period of months/yrs (serial reproduction)

Results: story became shorter, but remembered main ideas, changed unfamiliar events into familiar terms which fit own cultural expectations

Conclusion: memory is an active process; memories are "reconstructive"

Craik & Tulving (1975)

Aim: to test the 'levels of processing'

Method: participants presented w/ 60 words, 1/3 Qs to words; Qs designed to activate different levels of processing (structural vs. semantic); given pool of 180 words where original 60 mixed, asked to pick out originals

Results: mainly picked out words asked w/ Qs, triggering semantic processing

Conclusion: semantic processing/triggering can lead to better recall; existence of levels of processing

Fantz (1961)

Aim: to demonstrate schema theory w/ infants' mental abilities

Method: 1st w/ chicks-- presented (before experience w/ real food) chicks w/ objects of different shapes/sizes, recorded how often pecked at; then w/ babies-- didn't interfere w/ usual schedules/activities but placed into comfortable/padded viewing box, presented w/ various pairs of objects to look age (ages 1-15 weeks); then 49 babies (4D-6M) given identical sized disks (face/blackened/patchy) to look at; observed total amt. of time during 1 minute trials spent staring at pairs to see which "preferred"

Results: chicks preferred object most similar in shape to potential food; infants preferred forms w/ greatest complexity (innate), facial features (ignored control)

Conclusion: babies of all ages possess the ability to perceive/discriminate among diverse forms; innate behaviors/schemas!

Brewer & Treyens (1981)

Aim: to investigate whether people's memory for objects in a room (office) is influenced by existing schemas of expectations

Method: 30 university students arrived individually to lab, waited in an office containing office objects w/ other objects (skull, bark, pliers); let out after short time, asked to write all they could remember

Results: most recalled schematic objects, many remembered skull; some reported objects expected but not present

Conclusion: confirms schema theory

Cole & Scribner (2007)

Aim: to investigate free recall in 2 different cultures (US/Kipelle people of Liberia)

Method: researchers used objects familiar to Liberian children; list of words belonged to 4 categories; US kids given free recall tests matching culture. presented words to part's, then presented objects in meaningful way as part of a story

Results: in free recall test, non-schooled hardly improved after 9 yrs old (10 items, 15 after practice; Liberian=USA, similar memory strategies); in 2nd part, non-schooled remembered b/c grouped to roles played in story; used chunking, recalled in categories; possible cultural differences in cognitive processes

Brown & Kulick (1977)

Aim: to investigate the idea of flashbulb memories; days of personal significance are illuminated in mind where minor details are remembered

Method: 80 US (40B/40W) participants answered Q's about 10 events (9 were assassinations of well-known US personalities; 1 was self-selected event of personal relevance, unexpected shock). asked to recall circumstances when 1st heard news of events, indicate how often had rehearsed information about each

Results: memories particularly vivid! detailed! long lasting!

Conclusion: FBMs are special/quite different from others-- allow to remember minor details otherwise forgotten

Palva et al. (2010)

Aim: to investigate the interaction of neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex in relation to visual working memory

Method: data for EEG/MEG used to ID patterns of interactions b/n neurons in cerebral cortex during visual tasks

Results: synchronization of neuronal activity in different brain areas is related to maintenance/contents of working memory; specific networks interacted

Corkin et al. (1997)

HM/Milner & Scoville (1957)

Method: used MRI to study HM's brain lesion in 1st attempt to use modern technology to study it

Results: confirmed relationship b/n damage to medial temporal lobes (hippocampus) and HM's amnesia

Phelps (2003)

Aim: to determine if a unique brain mechanism is involved in FMB's

Method: 3 years after 9/11, 24 participants who were in NYC on day were put into fMRI while recalled autobiographical memories from 9/11 & other distinct autobiographical events from summer 2001; asked to rate memories for vividness, detail, confidence in accuracy, arousal, valence

Results: 1/2 reported high vividness/confidence/detail; closeness/proximity to WTC showed enhanced amygdala activation; personal involvement may be significant

LeDoux (1999)

Aim: to investigate the role of the amygdala

Method: rats conditioned to feel fear at the sound of a bell, tracers placed in body for pathway, lesioned & removed auditory thalamus, tested again for fear at bell

Results: no longer showed fear after thalamus removed

Conclusion: biology interacts w emotion

Speisman et al. (1964)

Aim: to prove the Lazarus theory that appraisal can interfere with emotions

Method: shown unpleasant documentary of traditional coming of age ritual of performing circumcision on boys, split into 3 groups: trauma, denial, intellectualization with different soundtracks

Results: different emotional responses to same stimuli

Conclusion: evaluated situation as painful based on soundtrack influence, different reactions to same stimuli, cognitive interaction with behavior