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160 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What cells make up the mucosal layer of the stomach?
chief and parietal cells
FUNCTION chief cells
synthesize and secrete cartolytic enzymes that are capable of digesting proteins into amino acids
FUNCTION parietal cells
synthesize and release hydrochloric acid
How does the stomach prevent the HCl from digesting itself?
the mucosal tissue forms ridges called Rugae
What causes peptic ulcers?
bacteria NOT HCl concentration
What nervous system innervates the stomach?
What NN sympathetically innervate the stomach? Purpose?
splachnic NN; slows down digestion (opposite from normal)
What NN parasympathetically innervate the stomach? Purpose?
vagus NN; speeds up digestion (fight or flight response)---opposite from normal
What are the 2 main purposes of the pancreas?
Endocrine and Exocrine
Which of the main purposes of the pancreas is ductless? Why?
Endocrine; because forms hormones (insulin) that travels through blood
Which of the main purposes of the pancreas has ducts? Why?
Exocrine; bc produces digestive enzymes that must enter duodenum
Which of the 2 main purposes of the pancreas makes up 99% of its function?
What AA supply the body and tail of the pancreas?
10 short AA off of Splenic A
What AA supply the head of the pancreas?
sup/inf pancreaticoduodenal AA
What innervates the pancreas?
splanchnic NN (sympathetic)
vagus NN (parasympathetic)
What controls the cortex of the adrenal gland?
anterior pituitary
What does the cortex of the adrenal gland produce?
adrenocortical hormones (ie-cortisone)
What controls the Adrenal Medulla?
sympathetic nervous system
What does the adrenal medulla produce?
catecholamines (E and NE)
What AA supply the Adrenal gland?
superior adrenal aa, middle adrenal aa, inferior adrenal aa
What do adrenal vv flow into on the R side of the body?
What do adrenal vv flow into on the L side of the body
L Renal V---IVC
What innervates the adrenal gland?
adrenal cortex is NOT innervated bc controlled by ant. pituitary; adrenal medulla innervated by Splachnic NN (sympathetic)
What are the major functions of the Liver?
-biodegrades hemoglobin to produce bile and bilorubin
-detox blood
-store sugar as glycogen
-fat, protein and carb metabolism
-produces 1/2 to 1/4 of bodies lymphatic fluid
DEFINE erythropoesis
production of red blood cells
What cardiovascular system is the only system that has 2 capillary beds before going to the heart?
portal venous system
-one in capillaries of GI tract
-one in sinusoids of liver
What is the biliary tree?
system of ducts that collects bile made in liver and either stores in gallbladder or enters into sm intestine.
What are hepatocytes?
cells that produce bile from hemoglobin
What controls flow of bile from the common bile duct to the ampulla?
choledochral sphincter
What controls flow of digestive enzymes from main pancreatic duct to the ampulla?
main pancreatic duct sphincter
What controls the flow of bile/enzymes from the ampulla to the duodenum?
sphincter of oddi
Where is the fundus of the gall bladder found in the body?
tip of 9th costal cartilage
What are the functions of the gall bladder?
stores and concentrates bile to be used in fat digestion
How does bile aid in the digestion of fat?
it emulsifies fat and therefore increases the surface area so enzymes can come in and break it down faster
What does bile come from?
the hemoglobin of old erythrocytes
How does the gall bladder know when to contract and send bile to the duodenum?
excessive fat in the duodenum causes a release of the hormone cholecystokinin that ends up in the blood going to the gall bladder. Cholecystokinin causes smooth m cells to contract and release bile.
What are the functions of the spleen?
-extract hemoglobin from erythrocytes
-contains arterial blood for an emergency back up to incr. blood volume when a lot is lost
-function as lymph node (filter debris)
-in children, called hemapoetic tissue that can produce both RBC and WBC
How long is the small intestine?
21 ft
What are the names of the 3 sections of the sm intestine and how long is each segment?
What is the function of the small intestine?
-digest food (proteins, carbs, fats)
-absorb amino acids, simple sugars, and fatty acids
What are plicae circularis?
circular folds of mucosal tissue most numerous in duodenum
What are villi?
finger-like projection off of circular folds. most numerous in duodenum
What are lacteal?
lymphatic capillaries within each villi that absorb fatty acids and takes them to thoracic duct
What else is contained within the villi besides lacteals?
CV capillaries (VV) that absorb amino acids and simple sugars
What are pyrus patches?
agregations of lymphatic tissue (lymph nodes) found only in the Ileum of sm intestine
When was the Marine corp founded?
10 November 1775
How long is the first part of the duodenum?
How long is the 2nd part of the duodenum?
What is contained within the descending portion of the duodenum? what is its purpose?
major duodenal papilla (aka sphincter of oddi) this is where bile and enzymes enter sm intestines
How long is the 3rd part of the duodenum?
How long is the 4th part of the duodenum?
What suspends the duodenal/jejunal flexure?
suspensory lig of duodenum
What controls the flow of material from the ileum to the cecum?
ileocecal valve
How long is the large intestine?
What are the functions of the large intestine?
-reabsorb H2O for processing in kidneys
-reabsorb electrolytes (ie- K, Cl, Ca)
-forms fecal matter
What is the only part of the colon that is NOT retroperitoneal?
transverse colon
What innervates the colon?
splanchnic nn--sympathetically
vagus nn--parasympathetically
Where are the kidneys located in relation to the vertebral column?
What encompasses the kidneys and what is its purpose?
renal capsule that is composed of perirenal fat that anchors kidneys to post ab wall and protects kidneys
How does urine move through the ureters?
How many nephrons are in a single kidney?
1.5 million
When a kidney transplant is done, where do they but the kidney?
in the iliac fossa
What makes up the posterior pelvic wall?
sacrum, coccyx and piriformis m
INSERTION obturator internus m
greater trochanter
INNERVATION obturator internus m
N to obturator internus m (L5, S1, S2)
FUNCTION obturator internus m, piriformis m, sup gemellus m, inf gemellus m, quadratus femoris m
lateral rotation of thigh at hip
What is the function of the pelvic floor?
supports visceral structures in pelvis
What 2 MM make up the pelvic diaphragm?
levator ani m and coccygeus m
What are the 3 supcomponents of the levator ani m?
puborectalis, pubococcygeus, iliococcygeus mm
What are other names for the puborectalis?
levator prostatae (males)
sphincter vaginae (females
FUNCTION puborectalis
forms muscular slings around rectum and recto-anal junction. some fibers go around urethra and sometimes vagina
ORIGIN levator ani mm
post surface of pubic bone
INSERTION levator ani mm
ischial spine
INNERVATION levator ani mm
pudendal n (ventral rami S1, S2, S4)
ORIGIN coccygeus m
ischial spine
INSERTION coccygeus m
sacrum and coccyx
INNERVATION coccygeus m
FUNCTION coccygeus m
support pelvic structures and aids in flexing the coccyx
What are all of the AA that branch off of the ext iliac a?
inf epigastric a
deep circumflex a
What are all of the AA that branch off of the int iliac a?
sup gluteal a
lateral sacral a
iliolumbar a
inf gluteal a
internal pudendal a
uterine a
mid rectal a
umbilical a
inf vesical aa
obturator a
What is the function of the urinary bladder?
stores urine
What innervates the urinary bladder?
inf hypogastric nn
pelvic nn
DEFINE urethral crest
elevated ridge of tissue (in prostate)
DEFINE prostatic calliculus
wide part of elevated portion (contains openings to l/r ejaculatory ducts)--in prostate
DEFINE prostatic utricle
flat, depressed are on crest
what is the prostatic utricle analogous to in females?
uterus or vagina
FUNCTION prostate/prostatic ducts
-produce/secrete an alkaline secretion (basic) that functions to neutralize the acidic environment of vagina to enhance fertilization
-produces fluid for sperm to swim in
-produces fructose and glucose (food for sperm)
What are the structures that produce semen?
seminal vesicles
bulbourethral glands
prostate gland
INNERVATION prostate gland
inf hypogastric nn---sympathetically
pelvic nn--parasympathetically
What AA supply the prostate?
inf vesicle aa
middle rectal aa
What does the ductus deferens join to form the ejaculatory duct?
duct of seminal vesicles
what are seminal vesicles?
coiled, dilated glandular tubes (~15cm)
Where do the bulbourethral glands open into the urethra?
in spongy urethra
What are the 3 layers of the uterine wall?
What are the 2 posterior ligaments of the uterus?
cardinal and uterosacral
What is the function of the 2 posterior ligaments of the uterus?
keep uterus from prolapsing into vagina
What are the limits of the vaginal canal?
cervix and hymen
What AA supply the vagina?
uterine aa
vaginal aa
middle rectal aa
internal pudendal aa
What NN innervate the vagina sympathetically and parasympathetically?
S: hypogastric plexus
P: pelvic nn
What N provides sensory innervation to the vagina?
pudendal n
What are the 3 parts of the Uterine Tube?
isthmus--ampulla--infundibulum (w/ fimbria)
What is the name of the only part of the uterine tub that is attached to the ovaries?
fimbria ovarica
What are the 2 major NN that branch off of the Pudendal N?
dorsal n of penis/clitoris
perineal n
Name the 5 layers of the Urogenital Triangle from deep to superficial
Layer 1--pelvic diaphragm
layer 2--urogenital diaphragm
layer 3--superficial perineal pouch
layer 4--subcutaneous tissue
layer 5--integument (skin)
What are the 3 layers of the urogenital diaphragm (deep to superficial)?
1--thin layer of fascia
2--sphincter urethrae m, deep transverse perineal m
3--perineal membrane
What do the thin layer of fascia and perineal membrane of the urogenital diaphragm form?
deep perineal pouch
What 3 MM make up the superficial perineal pouch (layer 3) of urogenital triangle?
ischicavernosus mm, bulbospongiosus mm, superficial transverse perineal mm
What N innervates the MM of the superficial perineal pouch?
perineal n
ORIGIN ischiocavernosus
ischiopubic rami
INSERTION ischiocavernosus
crura of penis clitoris
FUNCTION ischiocavernosus
aids in maintaining erection of penis/clitoris by squeezing off venous return flow
What plexus does the sciatic N come from?
FUNCTION gluteus maximus
extends thing
INNERVATION gluteus maximus
inf. gluteal N (L5, S1, S2)
FUNCTION gluteus medius
ABduct and medially rotate thigh
INNERVATION gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, tensor fascia lata
sup gluteal n (L5, S1, S2)
FUNCTION gluteus minimus
ABducts and medially rotates thigh
FUNCTION tensor fascia lata
ABducts and flexes thigh
What MM are lateral rotators of the thigh?
periformis, sup gemellus, obturator internus, inf gemellus, quadratus femoris
What MM are contained within the anterior compartment of the thigh?
iliacus, psoas major, sartorius, pectineus, rectus femoris, vasus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius
FUNCTION anterior compartment MM of thigh
extend leg
flex thigh
INNERVATION anterior compartment MM of thigh (excluding Psoas major)
femoral N
what kind of bone is the patella? what does this mean?
sesamoid bone b/c it is embedded within the tendon of the quadriceps femoris
FUNCTION patella
increases leverage for quadriceps femoris
What 2 bones form the actual articulation of the knee joint?
2 femoral condyles and 2 tibial condyles
What kind of joint is the knee?
a synovial hinge joint
What are the functions of the knee?
flex and extend leg
What are bursa and where are they located?
synovial membranes filled with fluid located where skin, MM, or tendons rub against bone
How many bursa are located near the knee?
10 total
6 post
4 ant
What causes bursitis?
excessive tendon movement
What is the function of the ACL?
prevents anterior displacement of tibia on femur (hyperextension)
What is the function of the PCL?
prevents post displacement of tibia on femur
What are the intracapsular ligaments?
What are the extracapsular ligaments?
LCL, MCL, ligamentum patella, arcuate ligament, oblique popliteal ligament
What is the function of the ligamentum patella?
supports knee joint
What forms the articulation of the hip?
head of femur and acetebulum
When does ossification of the hip complete?
around age 16
What type of joint is the hip?
ball and socket, synovial joint
What movements can the hip preform?
flex, extend, ABduct, ADduct, medial rotation, lateral rotation, circumduction
What is the depressed area on the head of the femur and what is associated with this area?
fovea capitis, ligamentum teres
What is the ligamentum teres?
a vascular structure that supplies blood to the head of the femur
What ligaments form the capsule around the hip?
iliofemoral, pubofemoral, ischiofemoral, ligamentum teres (not true lig but provides some stabilization)
What AA supply the hip joint?
obturator A, Sup/Inf gluteal AA, Medial/lateral femoral circumflex AA (branch of deep femoral A)
What is the function of the menisci of the knee joint?
increases depth of articulating surface
protect bone because provides cushion between tibia and femur
What AA supply blood to the knee joint?
l/r superior genicular AA
L/r inferior genicular AA
Why is it easier to damage your MCL than your LCL
MCL has little flexibility due to the fact that it is attached to the medial meniscus
How is your MCL usually damaged?
lateral or medial blow to knee
Why is it easier to damage your medial meniscus than you lateral meniscus?
b/c medial is more firmly attached to the medial condyle of tibia
What are the boundaries of the femoral triangle?
sup: inguinal lig
medial: medial border of adductor longus M
lateral: sartorius
roof: fascia lata
floor: pectineus and adductor longus MM
what structures are found within the femoral triangle?
femoral A, V, N; femoral sheath; sup/deep lymph nodes
in what order are the femoral vessels and N found in the femoral triangle?
N, A, V
What are some pathological uses of the femoral triangle?
its a pressure point to reduce blood flow to the legs
aids in diagnostics b/c can insert needle
What is the only thing that is not contained within the femoral sheath?
femoral N
What is contained within the adductor canal?
femoral A, V and saphenous N
What is the only thing that is contained within the adductor canal that does not go through the adductor hiatus?
saphenous N, goes down medial leg
What is contained within the popliteal fossa?
popliteal A, V
tibial N
common peroneal N
What makes up the boundaries of the popliteal fossa?
sup medial: semitendinosus and semimembranosus MM
sup lateral: biceps femoris
inf: gastrocnemius
What does the sm. saphenous V drain?
the lateral aspect of the dorsal venous arch
What does the Great Saphenous V drain?
medial aspect of the dorsal venous arch
What can the great saphenous V be harvested for?
for use in coronary bypass surgery