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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The two kinds of cases that courts hear are
criminal and civil cases
The judicial branch was created by
Article III
In which of the following would federal courts have jurisdiction?
disputes between two states
Which court in the federal system has responsibility for determining the facts of a case?
district court
What kinds of trials do district courts hold?
They hold both criminal and civil trials
Which of the following is an appeals court allowed to do?
reverse a lower court decision
What does it mean when a judge uses precedent to arrive at an opinion?
The judge relies heavily on previous opinions in similar cases
In a criminal case, if an accused person is judged innocent
*
How many circuit courts are found in the United States?
13
Which of the following can limit the power of the Supreme Court?
congressional legislation
The Supreme Court's decision in Plessy v. Ferguson reflected Americans' approval of
segregation
What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 establish?
federal district courts and circuit courts of appeals
Federal judges are given tenure so that they
will not be subject to political influences
Which group prosecutes people accused of breaking federal laws?
U.S. attorneys
What was the significance of the Supreme Court decision in Marbury v. Madison?
It established the U.S. Supreme Court's right of judicial review in federal cases.
When Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, it was
Overturning the Supreme Courts decision and Dred Scott v. Sandford
court reviews decisions from lower courts
appeals court
to legally cancel a law or an action
nullify
court calendar
docket
statement written by a justice who agrees with the Court's ruling but for different reasons
concurring opinion
parties to a lawsuit
litigants
situation in which all justices vote the same way
unanimous opinion
statement that explains the ruling on a Supreme Court case
majority opinion
allowed by the Constitution
constitutional
federal court where trials are held and lawsuits are begun
district court
only federal courts may hear and decide cases
exclusive jurisdiction
past opinion upon which judges base their own decisions in similar cases
precedent
statement that presents the view of justices who disagree with a Supreme Court ruling
dissenting opinion
power to analyze any federal, state, or local law or action to see if it goes against the Constitution
judicial review
authority of a court to hear a case appealed from a lower court
appellate jurisdiction
situation in which both state and federal courts have authority to hear a case
concurrent jurisdiction
guiding principle in which justices rely on precedent
stare decisis
order that directs a lower court to send its records on a case to the Supreme Court
writ of certiorari
document written by lawyers that explains one side's position in a case
brief
to send a case back to a lower court to be tried again
remand
authority to hear cases for the first time
original jurisdiction
Which president appointed the most chief justices?
Washington
Which states have had the highest number of chief justice appointments?
New York and Virginia