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14 Cards in this Set

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What are nucleotides made of?

Nucleic acids consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and base

What are the 4 types of bases?

Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine

How is DNA structured?

Double helix - twisted ladder:


Rails - phosphate/sugar


Rungs - base pairs A/T G/C


Template strand - sense, translates to amino acids


Non-template - only structural

Transcription

RNA copy of DNA gene is made


DNA (gene) > RNA (gene copy)

Translation

Protein is made from RNA gene copy, RNA (gene copy) > protein

What are 3 forms of RNA?

mRNA - messenger, copy of gene


rRNA - ribosomal, site of translation


tRNA - transfer, amino acid carrier

Codon

1. Segments of three nucleotide bases within a gene


2. Each codon is translated to one amino acid


3. Universal code - codons are the same in all living things

What are the 3 types of codons?

1. Initiator codon - protein code begins


2. Structural codon - amino acid sequence in protein


3. Terminator codon - protein code ends

What are the steps of transcription?

mRNA copy of DNA gene is made in nucleus:


1. Unwind chromosome and open helix


2. Match DNA bases with RNA bases


3. Product - RNA copy of gene

What are the steps of translation?

1. Initiation - mRNA meets rRNA


2. Elongation - tRNA's have an anti-codon and carry amino acid that matches the anticodon - tRNA for each amino acid


- codons translated to amino acids


3. Termination - STOP codons


4. Protein processing - golgi

What is a silent point mutation?

Change in one nucleotide in a codon, no amino acid change, no effect

What is a missense point mutation?

Change to one nucleotide in a codon, different amino acid, semi-lethal mutation, chronic illness produced, but not lethal

What is a nonsense point mutation?

Change to one nucleotide in a codon, stop codon - incomplete protein, lethal mutation, important protein is inactive

What causes mutations?

Chemicals - insertional, substitutional


Radiation - breaks covalent bonds


Viruses - insert new genes


Inheritance