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14 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What are nucleotides made of?

Nucleic acids consisting of a phosphate, sugar, and base

What are the 4 types of bases?

Adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine

How is DNA structured?

Double helix - twisted ladder:

Rails - phosphate/sugar

Rungs - base pairs A/T G/C

Template strand - sense, translates to amino acids

Non-template - only structural


RNA copy of DNA gene is made

DNA (gene) > RNA (gene copy)


Protein is made from RNA gene copy, RNA (gene copy) > protein

What are 3 forms of RNA?

mRNA - messenger, copy of gene

rRNA - ribosomal, site of translation

tRNA - transfer, amino acid carrier


1. Segments of three nucleotide bases within a gene

2. Each codon is translated to one amino acid

3. Universal code - codons are the same in all living things

What are the 3 types of codons?

1. Initiator codon - protein code begins

2. Structural codon - amino acid sequence in protein

3. Terminator codon - protein code ends

What are the steps of transcription?

mRNA copy of DNA gene is made in nucleus:

1. Unwind chromosome and open helix

2. Match DNA bases with RNA bases

3. Product - RNA copy of gene

What are the steps of translation?

1. Initiation - mRNA meets rRNA

2. Elongation - tRNA's have an anti-codon and carry amino acid that matches the anticodon - tRNA for each amino acid

- codons translated to amino acids

3. Termination - STOP codons

4. Protein processing - golgi

What is a silent point mutation?

Change in one nucleotide in a codon, no amino acid change, no effect

What is a missense point mutation?

Change to one nucleotide in a codon, different amino acid, semi-lethal mutation, chronic illness produced, but not lethal

What is a nonsense point mutation?

Change to one nucleotide in a codon, stop codon - incomplete protein, lethal mutation, important protein is inactive

What causes mutations?

Chemicals - insertional, substitutional

Radiation - breaks covalent bonds

Viruses - insert new genes