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23 Cards in this Set

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Dorsal cartilage rod providing support. Located between the gut and nerve cord. Vertebrates notochords became boney and surround the nerve chord.

Dorsal Hollow Nerve Chord:

Develops from a section of the embryo rolling into a tube. Unique to chordates. Nerve chords in annelids are ventral and solid.

Pharyngeal Slits:

Found in larval but not all adult forms. Allow water to pass over gills without passing through the digestive tract. Sometimes modified to form gills.

Post-anal Tail:

Basically a tail.

Sea Squirts:

They have all of the four traits in their larval stage. They then lose some of them when they become adults.


Invertebrate chordate. They look very similar to an embryo. Closest living invertebrate cousin to vertebrates. Filter feeders.

Vertebrate Characteristics:

- Vertebrae surround the nerve chord.

- Cranium enclosing the brain.

- Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone.

- Closed circulatory system.

- Paired appendages.

- Respiration through lungs or gills.

- Efficient excretion through kidneys.

- High degree of cephalization.

Jawed Fish:

Can eat more and larger prey. Can take bites.

Cartilaginous Fish:

Skeletons of cartilage. Sharks, rays, skates.

Cartilaginous Fish Senses:

- Sense of smell.

- Lateral line: detects change in pressure on both sides of body.

- Can detect electrical currents.


Jawed vertebrates that can support their own weight on land.


Tetrapods that still need water to survive. They need water to breed because they use external fertilization and their eggs are not hard.

Amphibian Characteristics:

- Usually tetrapods.

- Three chambered heart.

- Respiration occurs through lungs and skin.

- Some are poisonous.


Vertebrates that can reproduce on land. Reptiles, birds, mammals.

Amniote Egg Parts:

- Yolk Sac: Contains nutrients for the embryo.

- Allantois: Sac for waste. Membrane with the chorion acts as respiratory system.

- Amnion: Protects embryo in fluid filled cavity. Cushions against shock.

- Chorion: Part of respiratory system.


They were the first to live on land. They can do this because they have internal fertilization, amniotic egg, and scales.


Adaptations to reduce weight:

-Lack teeth.

-Reduced tail vertebrae.

-Hollow bones.

Adaptation to help with flight:

-Keel like breast bone for attachment of large breast muscles for flight.

-Air foil wing.

-Warm blooded with four chambered heart for more active life.

Amniote Hearts:

Fish: Two chambered heart. Blood travels to gill capillaries to body to heart.

Amphibian: Three chambered heart. O2 rich and O2 poor blood mix in ventricle. Blood travels to lung capillaries to heart to body to heart.

Mammals/Birds: Four chambered heart. Complete separation of oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood. More efficient.

Mammal Characteristics:

- Mammary glands in females produce milk.

- Most are covered in hair, prevents heat loss.

- Constant body temperature.

- Sweat and sebaceous glands in the skin.

- Two sets of teeth that are set in sockets in jaw.

- Infant dependency and parental care.

- Well-developed brain with very well developed cerebrum for reasoning.

- Digits.

- Four chambered heart.

- Highly developed kidneys.

- Terrestrial except for manatees n sh1t.


Platypus and Echidna. Lay hard shelled eggs and secrete milk (no nipples).


Australia m8. Give birth to under developed live young that complete their development while nursing in the marsupium.

Placental Mammals:

- Young born fully developed.

- Young nourished by well-developed placenta.

- Placenta provide nutrients and oxygen, takes away C02 and wastes.


- Opposable thumbs.

- Nails not claws.

- Well developed brain.

- Single birth.

- Extended parental care.

- Learned behavior.