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72 Cards in this Set

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Congenital

Present at birth

If a congenital defect or disorder results from a defective gene, it's then

Hereditary or genetic

A congenital disorder is considered ___if it results from maternal factors or conditions during pregnancy or childbirth

Acquired



_ is the study of heredity

Genetics

A__is a physical or mental abnormality resulting from a defect in genetic structure.

Genetic disorder

A familial genetic gene means...

The biological parent has the defective gene, and passes it on to the offspring

Examples of genetic disorders

Neurofibromatosis, Tay-Sachs, cystic fibrosis

Characterized by cafe au lait spots and benign tumors. The child has neurologic, cognitive, and speech impairment. ADHD and seizures are common

Neurofibromatosis

An unborn error of metabolism primarily affecting children of Ashkenazi Jewish descent. The child becomes hypotonic and loses vision. Death normally occurs before 4 years. A blood test is available to determine carriers.

Tay-Sachs diseasedisease

____test is performed on amniotic fluid or serum, increased levels indicate possible neural tube or ventral wall defects.

Alpha fetoprotein, AFP

_ is available for people who are seeking information about the possibility of genetic disorders in their families

Genetic counseling

T or F




The genetic counselor does not make decisions for people about family planning.

true


The counselor provides info and options, and the person or couple makes the decisions.

Genetic counseling is a form of __ that strives to prevent birth defects

Preventive medicine

__are substances that the pregnant woman uses or comes into contact with! which are know to cause a wide range of fetal abnormalities.

Teratogens

__is a general term that describes the wide range of physical, mental! behavioral, and/or learning disabilities known to be directly related to maternal alcohol consumption

Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs)

_the most severe form of FASDs

FAS fetal alcohol syndrome

Infants may not have all of the typical diagnostic features of FAS, but they do have some degree of functional or mental health problem
ARND alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
have birth defects that involve the heart, kidneys, bones, and/or hearing
ARBD alcohol-related birth defects
microcephaly, retardation, growth deficiency shortened attention span are just a few characteristics of a child with___

FAS or FASD
narcotic use during pregnancy can cause the child to have ___

neonatal abstinence syndrome
s/s of neonatal abstinence syndrome

irritability, tremors, hyperactive moro reflex, and poor feeding

withdrawal for a neonate from narcotics depends on the drug used, but typically last ___

from 24 to 48 hours after birth and lasting about 2wks

The use of __(drug) by HIV positive pregnant women and their newborns has resulted in fewer cases of pediatic HIV and the subsequent reduction of cases of AIDS.
zidovudine (AZT, Retrovir)
Because of their immature immunie system, infants with HIV are diagnosed with AIDs by age __.

4

What are the 2 test used to confirm HIV/AIDS

Elisa (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test and the Western Blot test

How long is zidovudine (AZT Retrovir) cont'd in the infants of women diagosed with HIV/AIDs

one year

T or F




Breast feeding is ok in HIV-infected mothers


False




breast feeding is contraindicated


What are the 2 test that are used to determine degrees of intellectual impairment?

Weschsler Intelligence Scale for children-revised and the Stanford Binet
___ is the numerical baseline for normal IQ

100
__results from a chromosomal abnormaility. It is also know as trisomy 21.

Down Syndrome

___is the most common cause of mental retardation

Down syndrome

Down syndrome in children born to mothers who are ___

OVER 35 and mothers who smoke during pregnancy
What are typical characteristics of babies with down syndrome?


small, flat nose and upward, outwad lanting eyes; simian line; short square hands; short stubby feet with a space between the big toe and rest of the toes; brushfield's spots.




What is simian line?

an abnormal crease stright across the palms of the hand

What are brushfields's spots?

white dots on the irises of the eye
a genetic, sex-linked abnormaility of the x chromosome

Fragile X syndrome

__ is the most common form of inherited mental retardation

Fragile X syndrome
What are some of the physical characteristics of a child with Fragile X syndrome?

Large feature-broad nose, large head, wide set eyes
How is Fragile X treated?
no cure exist. treatment is symptomatic

are assorted groups of chronic physical, cognitive, psychological, sensory, and speech impairments that are diagnosed at any time from the age of early development to 22yrs of age

Developmental disabilities (DD)

_ are educational concerns

SLDs

is one the most common SLD disorder where the person has difficulty with reading, spelling, or writing words. Often the person reverses letters and numbers

dyslexia

is the most common child behavioral disorder. It involves a learning disability and a behavioral disorder.

ADHD or ADD

ADHD is more common in ___ and tends to run in familiess.

boys
The current drug of choice for ADHD pt is____ which is a CNS stimulant that affects mental, rather than motor skills.

Ritalin (methylpheniadate HCL)
The __ of a child on Ritlan should measured frequently and reported immediately if failure to gain in any area.

height and weight
is an inherited, neurologic disorder of unknown cause, although a chemical neurotransmitter abnormality is found. children exhibit multiple involuntary movements and uncontollable vocalizations, called tics.

Tourette Syndrome
coprolalia

utter obscenities (tourette)
echolalia

repeat words of other people (tourette)

a group of symptoms; lifelong, complex developmental deisorders characterized by intellectual, social, and communications deficits.

autism spectrum disorders
autistic savant

autistic children that exhibit a profound ability in a certain area
eating nonfood items is termed

pica

__is the most sever complications of lead poisoning.

lead encephalopathy
some
S/S of plumbism

blue or blue-black line on the gums near the teeth; hyperirritability; ataxia (unsteady gait); intermittent colic; nausea and vomiting
What test is used to diagnose plumbism?

BLL- blood lead levels
is the administration of medications that bind to lead to remove it from the body

chelation

BAL in Oil

metal antagonist dimercprol given deep intramuscularly to remove lead from the body

a general term used to describe movement and coordination disorders in children that are the result of some form of brain damage.

Cerebral Palsy (CP)

T or F




Cerebral Palsy is a progressive disease


False, It's not
__ in the postnatal period due to high levels of bilirubin can cause Cerebral Palsy.
Severe Jaundice or kernicterus
the most common CP.
spastic cerebral palsy
is the most common degenerative muscular disorder in children. one group of x-linked, genetically transmitted disorders affecting boys characterized by progressive atrophy of symmetrical groups of skeletal muscles

Duchenne Muscular dystrophy
Duchenne Muscular dystrophy has a lack of what protein__in the muscles result in progressive wasting with gradual loss of strength and increasing muscle deformities.

dystophin
s/s of duchenne muscular dystrophy

gower's sign, gait with a waddle, child may walk on toes, gradual muscle atrophy. the child is in a wheel chair by age 11 or 12

what is gower's sign

the child gets up by pushing to an upright position, using hands to climb up the legs to standing position.
dysfluency

is an interruption in the natural flow of speaking. EX stuttering

the term given to thoughts or ideas of sicide.

suicidal ideation

an attempt at inflicting personal injury; the injury is not intended to cause death.

suicide gesture
what is a nursing consideration that can be used when caring for a child with suicidal ideation or gesture

a no suicide contract where they agree to not attempt suicide for a period of time and will contact help.

a lose of contact with reality. sometimes results from a dudden, severe emotional experience, or sometimes from the person's inability to adjust to the enviornment
schizophrenia
a term given to inhaling chemicals that produce a feeling od delirium or high
huffing