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10 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
The total energy of a system and its surrounds is conserved. Energy is neither created nor destroyed.

Change in internal NRG (tri e) = Heat added (italics q) + work done on system (italics w)
What is the second law of thermodynamics?
In any spontaneous process the entropy of the universe increases. Processes that are spontaneous in one direction are not spontaneous in the reverse direction.
What is entropy (S)?
Entropy (S) is a measure of the randomness of a system.
What is the third law of thermodynamics?
The entropy of a pure crystalline substance at absolute zero (0.0 K or -273 C) is zero.
What is Hess's law?
Hess's law states that, whether a reaction occurs in one step or in a series of steps, the change in enthalpy is an additive property.
Change in enthalpy (tri H) refers to the thermal NRG gained or lost when a change takes place under constant pressure.
What is Gibbs free energy (G)?
Gibbs free energy is a thermodynamic state function that combines enthalpy and entropy. For a change occurring at a constant temperature and pressure, the formula is tri G = tri H - (temp times tri S)
What is entropy (S)
Entropy is a measure of the randomness of a system.
What is enthalpy (H)?
Enthalpy is a measure of the amount of heat.
What does it mean when gibbs free energy (G) is postive/neutral/negative?
If gibbs free energy (G) is negative, the reaction is spontaneous and forward, if it is zero, the reaction is at equilibrium, if it is positive, the reaction is nonspontaneous.
What is the standard free-energy change?
The standard free-energy change for a reaction equals the sum of the standard free-energy values per mole of each product, each multiplied by the corresponding coefficient in the balanced equation, minus the corresponding sum for the reactants.