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24 Cards in this Set

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Acid

A species that is a proton donor

Alkalis

A type of base that dissolves in water forming hydroxide ions (OH-)

Base

A species that is a proton acceptor

Covalent Bonding

A bond formed by a shared pair of electrons

Disproportionation

The oxidation and Reduction of the same element in a redox reaction

Electronegativity

A measure of the attraction between a bonded atom for the pair of electrons in a covalent bond

Empirical formula

The simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element present in a compound

First ionisation energy

The energy required to remove one electron from each atom in one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of gaseous 1+ions

Hydrogen bonding

A strong dipole-dipole attraction between an electron deficient hydrogen atom on one molecule and a lone pair of electrons on a highly electro-negative atom on a different molecule

Ionic Bonding

The electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions

Isotopes

Atoms of the same element with different masses and number of neutrons

Metallic bond

The electrostatic attraction between positive metal ions and delocalised electrons

Mole

The amount of any substance containing as many particles as there are carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of the carbon 12 isotope

Molecular formula

The number of atoms of each element in a molecule

Atomic orbitals

A region within an atom that can hold up to two electrons, with opposite spins

Oxidation

Loss of electrons or an increase in oxidation number

Periodicity

A regular periodic variation of properties of elements with atomic number and position in the periodic table

Redox

A reaction in which both reduction and oxidation takes place

Reduction

Gain of electrons or a decrease in oxidation number

Relative atomic mass

The weighted mean mass of an atom of an element compared with one-twelfth the mass of a carbon 12 atom

Relative Isotopic mass

The mass of an atom of an isotope compared with one-twelfth the mass of a carbon 12 atom

Relative molecular mass

The weighted mean mass of a molecule compared with one-twelfth the mass of a carbon12 atom

Salt

A chemical compound formed from an acid, when an H+ ion from the acid has been replaced by a metal ion or another positive ion(e.g ammonium ion)

Van der Waals’ Forces

Very weak attractive forces between induced dipoles in neighbouring molecules