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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
How many elements are known? How many are natural?
There are 114 known elements of which 90 are natural and 24 artificial.
Who published the modern periodic table? The one we use today.
Dmitri Mendeleev. A Russian chemist.
How is the Periodic table laid out?
It's laid out in 7 horizontal rows called periods, and 18 vertical columns called groups.
A period can also stand for?
A principal quantum number, 1=n1; 2=n2 etc...
What elements do period 1 have?
Period 1 has two elements H and He.
How many elements do period 2 & 3 have?
They have 8 elements each.
How many elements do period 4 & 5 have?
They have 18 elements each.
How many elements do period 6 have?
32 elements.
How many elements do period 7 have?
Period 7 is incomplete and have 28 elements.
What's special about groups?
Elements in the same group have similar chemical properties.
What is group 1 & 2 called? What orbital gets filled here?
They're called 1A and 2A, the s-orbital gets filled.
What is group 13 - 18 called? What orbital gets filled here?
They're called 3A - 8A, these have the p-orbital filled.
What are group 1A - 8A called?
Main group.
What is group 3-7 called? What orbital gets filled here?
They're called 3b - 7b, the d-orbital gets filled.
What are group 8,9 and 10 called? What orbital gets filled here?
They're together called 8b, the d-orbital gets filled.
What are group 11 & 12 called? What orbital gets filled here?
They're called 1b and 2b, the d-orbital gets filled.
What are group 1b - 8b called?
They're called transition metal group.
3d orbit is filled after ____.
The 4s orbital is filled.
What are the two lower groups called?
Transition groups.
What is group Ce-Lu called?
Lanthanides group.
What is group Th-L.r called?
Actinides group.
What orbital do lanthanides and actinides group have filled?
The f-orbital.
When does the f-orbital start to get filled?
After the 5d orbital is filled.
Describe group 1A.
-Group 1A is also called, alkali metal group.
-The elements in this group are shiny soft metals that react rapidly to water and form alkaline products.
-Can't find them in pure state in the nature.
What elements form group 1A?
-Consist of, Lithium(Li), Sodium(Na), Potassium(k), Rubidium(Rb), Caesium(Cs), & Francium(Fr).
Describe group 2A.
-This group is also called alkaline earth metal.
-Lustrous, silvery, less reactive than group 1A, can't be found pure in nature.
What elements form group 2A?
Beryllium(Be), Magnesium(Mg), Calcium(Ca), Strontium(Sr), Barium(Br) & Radium (Ra).
Describe group 3A.
-All metals, except for Boron, which is a half metal, they're all soft and silvery in appearance, good heat and electric conductors.
- ns3np1
What elements form group 3A?
Boron(B), Aluminium(Al), Gallium(Ga), Indium(In) & Thallium(Tl).
What elements form group 4A? And whats its orbital signature?
Carbon(c), Silicon(Si), Germanium(Ge), Tin(Su) & Lead(Pb).
What elements form group 5A? And whats its orbital signature?
Nitrogen(N), Phosphorus(P), Arsenic(As), Antimony(Sb) & Bismuth(Bi).
What elements form group 6A? And whats its orbital signature?
Oxugen(O), Sulfur(S), Selenium(Se), Tellunium(Te) & Polonium(Po).
- ns2np4
What elements form group 7A?
Fluorine(F), Chlorine(Cl), Bromine(Br), Iodine(I) & Astatine(At).
Describe group 7A.
-Also called Halogens.
- ns2np5
What elements form group 8A?
Helium(He), Neon(Ne), Argon(Ar), Krypton(Kr), Xenon(Xe) & Radon(Rn).
Describe group 8A.
-Also called Nobel Gases.
-Gases with very low reactivity because the outermost shell is full.
The periodic table can be divided into three major classes, name them.
Metals, non-metals and semi-metals.
What is 'Zett'?
It's the nuclear attraction charge felt by an electron from nucleus.
What's a screening electron?
An electron that is close to the nucleus.
When does 'Zett' decrease?
When the screening electron increase.
When does the effective nuclear charge decrease?
When the average number of screening electrons increase.
What's Ionization energy?
- (Ei)
- Amount of energy necessary to remove an electron from an isolated neutral atom in gaseous state, it is always positive since energy is absorbed.
What has the highest Ionization energy?
Noble gases, because electrons are held tightly to the nucleus.
How does the Ionization energy increase?
From bottom left to the top right.
What happens when a neutral atom gains an electron?
The atom becomes negative and releases energy.
What happens when a neutral atom looses an electron?
It becomes positive and absorbs energy.
What group has the mos negativet electron affinity?
Group 7 the Halogens because they have a room in their valence shell for an additional electron.
What group has the lowest electron affinity?
Group 2 and group 8.