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49 Cards in this Set

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There are 3 states of matter:

Solid, Liquid and Gas

The particles are arranged differently in each state of matter... They also have...

Different types of movement

Solids, Liquids and Gases can be changed into one another by....

Changing the amount of energy that the particles have

Solid

Close together and touching one another, Regular arrangement, Vibrate about fixed positions, forces between particles stronger than in the liquid.

Close together and touching one another, Regular arrangement, Vibrate about fixed positions, forces between particles stronger than in the liquid.

Liquid

Close together and touching one another, irregular arrangement, Move around and slide past one another, forces between particles not as strong as in the solid.

Close together and touching one another, irregular arrangement, Move around and slide past one another, forces between particles not as strong as in the solid.

Gas

Far apart, irregular arrangement, Move freely and constantly collide with each other, Non-existent forces between particles

Far apart, irregular arrangement, Move freely and constantly collide with each other, Non-existent forces between particles

Solid to liquid - (heat the solid until it melts)

The particles gain kinetic energy and vibrate faster and faster. This allows the particles to overcome the forces of attraction that hold them together in the solid. The regular pattern is broken down and the particles can now slide past one another.

Liquid to Solid - (Cool the liquid until it freezes)

The particles lose kinetic energy and this allows the forces of attraction between the particles to hold them together. The particles arrange themselves into a regular pattern and are no longer able to slide past one another.

Liquid to Gas - (Heat the liquid until it boils)

The particles gain kinetic energy and move further apart. Eventually the forces of attraction between the particles are completely broken and they are able to escape from the liquid.

Gas to Liquid - (Cool the gas until it condenses)

The particles lose kinetic energy and this allows the forces of attraction to bring the particles closer together. The particles eventually clump together to form a liquid.

Solid to Gas - (Heat the solid until it sublimes)

The particles gain kinetic energy an vibrate faster and faster. Eventually the forces of attraction between the particles are completely broken and they are able to escape from the solid.

Diffusion

The spreading out of particles in a gas or liquid

You can show diffusion in gases easily by...

Using a gas jar, lower containing brown bromine gas and top containing normal air, over time bromine diffuses upwards making both jars uniformly brown. You could also use hydrogen and air except that to test you would have to do the squeaky pop test. You will find that the hydrogen can be found in both jars.

Showing that particles in different gases travel at different speeds:

Light particles are faster than heavier ones. Ammonia went farther because it is lighter than the HCL

Light particles are faster than heavier ones. Ammonia went farther because it is lighter than the HCL



Diffusion in liquids and showing that the particles are very small...

Potassium manganate (VII)

Potassium manganate (VII)

Atomic Structure:

Protons: Rel Charge- +1
Rel Mass - 1
Neutrons: Rel Charge - 0
Rekk Mass: 1
Electrons: Rel Charge - -1
Rel Mass: 1/1836

Protons: Rel Charge- +1


Rel Mass - 1


Neutrons: Rel Charge - 0


Rekk Mass: 1


Electrons: Rel Charge - -1


Rel Mass: 1/1836

Atomic Number =

Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

Mass Number =

Number of protons + number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

Iron Fillings

Element


Grey Powder


Attracted to magnet


Reacts with HCL to form hydrogen gas

Sulfur

Element


Yellow Powder


Not attracted to magnet


Does not react with HCL

Iron + Sulfur

Mixture


Mixture of grey and yellow powder


Grey powder (Iron) attracted to magnet, Yellow powder not attracted to magnet


Grey powder reacts (WITH HCL) to form Hydrogen Gas (H2)


Yellow powder doesn't react (WITH HCL)

Iron (II) sulfide

Compound


Dark grey solid


Not attracted to magnet


Reacts with HCL to form hydrogen sulfide (H2S)

Filtration

To separate an undissolved solid from a mixture of the solid and liquid/solution

Evaporation

To separate a dissolved solid from a solution, when the solid has similar solubility in both cold and hot solvent ( e.g sodium chloride from a solution of sodium chloride in water)

Crystallisation

To separate a dissolved solid from a solution, when the solid is much more soluble in hot solvent than in cold

Simple distillation

To separate a liquid from a solution

Fractional disstilation

To separate two or more liquids that are miscible with one another

Paper chromatogrpahy

To separate substances that have different solubilities in a given solvent

Isotopes

When atoms have the same atomic number but different mass numbers

The arrangement of electrons into shells for an atom is known as its....

Electron Configuration

The isotopes of magnesium and their percentage abundances are:




Magnesium - 24 78.6%; Magnesium - 25 10.1; Magnesium - 26 11.3%

Total mass of 100 atoms = (78.6 X 24) + (25 X 10.1) + (11.3 X 25) =2432.7




2432.7/100 = 24.327 = Mean mass of one atom

Mole

A measure of the amount of substance

Mass of substance (in grams) =

Amount X Mr (relative mass)

Amount of moles =

Mass of substance in grams / Mr (relative mass)

Volume of gas (in dm3) =

Amount X 24



Amount of gas (in moles) =

Volume of gas (in dm3) / 24


or


Volume of gas (in cm3) /24000

Volume of gas (in cm3)

Amount X 24000

Amount of dissolved substance (in mol)

Volume of solution (in cm3) X concentration of solution (in mol/dm3)


----------------------------------------------------------------------


1000

Ionic bonding

Where there has been a transfer of electrons from one atom to another to produces ions.

Ionic lattice

Ionic bond

The electrostatic force of attraction between the oppositely charged ions

The structure of an ionic compound e.g sodium chloride is described as...

Giant ionic

A bond in which electrons are shared between atoms is...

Covalent bonding

The none bonding electrons on the outer level are sometimes called...

Lone pairs

A positive ion is called a....

Cation

A negative ion is called an...

Anion

Simple molecular...

Covalent bond consisting of individual molecules

Diatomic means...

Two atoms

The attraction between the positive ions and the delocalised electrons is know as a...

Metallic bond