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51 Cards in this Set

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Mass Number

The number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom of an element

Atomic number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom

Relative atomic mass

The average mass of an atom of an element relative to the mass of an atom of Carbon-12, whose mass is defined as exactly 12

Avagadro's number

6.02x10^23

Empirical Formula

Simplest whole number ratio of atoms of each element in a compound

Molecular Formula

Formula showing the actual number of atoms of each element in one molecule of a compound or one formula unit

Structural formula

Formula showing how the atoms of each element present in a molecule are bonded together


First ionisation energy

The enthalpy change when 1 mole of electrons are removed from 1 mole of gaseous atoms to form 1 mole of unipositive ions

Ideal Gas Equation

PV=nRT (define P,V,n,R,T & UNITS)

Covalent bond

A shared PAIR of electrons

Coordinate/dative-covalent bond

A covalent bond where both shared electrons came from one of the bonded atoms

Electronegativity

The power of an atom to withdraw electron density FROM A COVALENT BOND

Homologous series

A family of organic compounds that have similar chemical properties due to the presence of the same functional group

Functional group

An atom or group of atoms which, when present in different molecules, causes them to have similar chemical properties

Saturated

An organic compound which only contains single bonds

Hydrocarbon

An organic compound which contains carbon and hydrogen only

Structural isomerism

Molecules with the same molecular formula but with different structural formulae

(Carbon) chain isomerism

Molecules with the same molecular formula but which have a different arrangement of the carbon chain

Position isomerism

Molecule with the same molecular formula, same carbon skeleton and same functional group, but the functional group is attached to different places on the carbon skeleton

Functional group isomerism

Same molecular formula but different functional group

Stereoisomerism

Molecules with the same molecular AND structural formula but their bonds are arranged differently in space

Geometric/z-e isomerism

Stereoisomerism arising from the presence of a C=C where there are two different groups attached at each end of the C=C

Nucleophile

Electron PAIR donor

Electrophile

Electron PAIR acceptor

Substitution

The replacement of an atom or group of atoms by another atom or group of atoms

Cracking

Long chain hydrocarbons broken into smaller chain hydrocarbons

Hydrolysis

The breaking of covalent bonds by reaction with water

Hydration

The ADDITION of water to a species

Addition Reaction

When two molecules react together to form one

Molecular Ion

A positive ion with the highest m/z value, formed by removal of one electron from the parent molecule

Free Radical

A reactive species which contains an unpaired electron

Initiation Step

One in which free radicals are generated

Propagation Step

One in which the number of free radicals is maintained

Termination Step

One in which free radicals react with each other and reduce the overall number of free radicals

Enthalpy Change

Heat energy change at constant pressure

Standard Conditions

All substances in their standard stable states, under conditions of 298K and 100kPa

Standard Enthalpy of Formation

Enthalpy change for the formation of one mole of a substance from its constituent elements, with all reactants and products in their standard stable states, under conditions of 298K and 100kPa

Standard Enthalpy of Combustion

Enthalpy change for the complete combustion of one mole of a substance in oxygen, with all reactants and products in their standard stable states, under conditions of 298K and 100kPa

Bond Dissociation Enthalpy

The enthalpy change for the breaking of one mole of a specific covalent bond in the gas phase, averaged over a wide range of compounds in which the bond is found

Hess's Law

The enthalpy change for a reaction is independent of the route taken, all measurements being made at the same temperature and pressure

Rate of Reaction

The change in concentration of a reactant or product per unit time

Activation Energy

The minimum amount of energy required for a reaction to occur on collision between reactant particles

Catalyst

A substance which alters the rate of a reaction without being used up. Catalysts which speed up a reaction do so by providing an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy

Dynamic Equilibrium

A reversible reaction reaches dynamic equilibrium when the rate or the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction. The reaction is continuous, but the concentrations of the reactants and products remain constant (though seldom equal)

Le Chatelier's Principle

A system at equilibrium will shift its equilibrium in such a direction as to oppose any change which is imposed upon it

Oxidation

Loss of electrons, gain of oxygen, loss of hydrogen

Reduction

Gain of electrons, loss of oxygen, gain of hydrogen

Oxidising agent

An electron acceptor

Reducing agent

An electron donor

Carbon Neutral

An activity that has no net annual carbon (CO2/greenhouse gas) emissions to the atmosphere

Biofuel

A fuel that is produced from plants or material derived from plants. Biofuels are renewable fuels