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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Law of Conservation of Mass
the total mass of substances present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances before the reaction
Law of Constant composition/Law of Definite Proportions
All samples of a compound have the same composition-the same proportions by mass of the constituent elements
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1. element composed of indivisible particles called atoms, can neither be created nor destroyed
2. all atoms of an element as alike in mass, but are different with different elements
3. different elements combine in a simple numerical ratio
Law of Multiple Proportions
if two elements form more than a single compound, the masses of one element combined with a fixed mass of the second are in the ratio of small whole numbers
Cathode Rays
Faraday discover the type of radiation emitted by the negative terminal, or cathode
what cathode rays became known as, proposed by George Stoney
Alpha Particles
Ernest Rutherford, carry two fundamental units of positive charge and have essentially the same mass as helium atoms
Beta Particles
are negatively charged particles produced by changes occurring within the nuclei of radioactive atoms and have the same properties as electrons
Gamma Rays
Paul Villard, type of radiation, not made up of particles, it is electromagnetic radiation of extremely high penetrating power
Rutherford, nuclear atom suggested the existence of positively charged fundamental particles of matter in the nuclei of atoms
James Cadwich, penetrating radiation consisted of beams of neutral particles
Atomic Number/Proton Number Z
the number of protons in a given atom
Mass Number, A
the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Atomic Mass Unit
amu, exactly 1/12 of the mass of the atom known as carbon-12
Chemical Symbols
one or two-letter abbreviations of the name
Atoms that have the samw atomic number, but different mass numbers
Percent Natural Abundances
refer to the relative proortions, expressed as percentages by number, in which the isotopes of an element are found in natural sources
when atoms gain or lose electrons, for example, in the course of a chemical reaction, they carry net charges
Mass Spectrometer
device used to separate and to measure the quantities and masses of different ions in a beam of positively charged gaseous ions
Atomic Mass
the average of the isotopic masses acording to the naturally occurring abundances of the isotopes of the element
Periodic Table
the classification system of the known elements
A Mole
the amount of a substance that contains the same number of elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12g of pure carbon-12
Avogadro Constant, NA
NA = 6.02214199 X 10-23 mol-1
Molar Mass, M
mass of one mole of atoms