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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

Alpha Radiation

Alpha (α) radiation consists of helium nuclei. The helium nucleus is a small particle containing two protons and two neutrons (4,2He).

Beta Radiation

Beta (β) radiation consists of electrons ( 0,−1e).

Positron Emissions

Positron emission results from the conversion of a proton in the nucleus to a neutron. The ejected positron (0,1e) is a particle that has the same mass as an electron but an opposite charge.

K-Electron Capture

Electron capture is the capture of an inner shell electron by a proton in the nucleus. The process emits gamma (γ) radiation and results in a proton converting to a neutron. Gamma radiation consists of high-energy electromagnetic radiation.

Gamma Radiation

Gamma (γ) radiation consists of high-energy radiation, and contain no particles and thus they have no mass (0,0γ}.

Half Life Equation

T(½) = 0.693/K

Equation for Life of an object (Nuclear Decay).

Ln(Nt/No) = -KT

(No) = Amount at beginning time.

(Nt) Amount at given time.

First Element Not Found In Nature


Gibbs Free Energy Equation

∆G = ∆H-T∆S

Gibbs Free Energy Related To emf

∆G = -nFE°cell

n= Number of mols of electrons

F= Faradays constant

Gibbs Free Energy Related to Keq

∆G = -RTln(Keq)

R = Ideal Gas Constant

T = Temperature


E°cell= E° cathode-E°cell anode

E cell

E cell = E°cell(0.0592)*log(Q)

Q = Reaction Quotient

Molarity (M)

Moles of solute/ Liters of Solvent

Molality (m)

Moles of solute/Kg of solvent

Mass %

(Mass of Solute/Mass of solvent)*100

Lewis Acids

A lewis acid is going to accept a pair of electrons.

Lewis Base

A lewis base is going to donate a pair of electrons.

Acid Dissociation Constant and Periodicity

The acid dissociation constant is generally going to increase as the charge increases and the radius decreases. So the solutions of these hydrated ions will be more acidic.

Periodicity of Ionization Energy

Ionization energy increases from left to right.

Ionization energy decreases from top to bottom.

Periodicity of Electronegativity

Electronegativity increases from left to right.

Electronegativity decreases from top to bottom.

Periodicity of Atomic Radius

Atomic Radius decreases from left to right.

Atomic Radius increases from top to bottom.

Covalent Bonding

What happens is that each atom in the bond shares an electron with the other atom to form a more stable bond. The electron is usually pulled towards the atom with the highest electronegativity.

Ionic Radius

Ionic radius increases as you move down a group.Ionic radius increases for the cations as you move from left to right. The ionic radius then decreases for the anions as you mover from left the right. There is a very large jump when you transition from cations to anions.

Electroplating Equation

Q= Z*T = n*F

Q = Charge

Z = Amps

T = Time in Seconds

n = Moles of electrons

F = Faraday's constant

What is a Faraday?

1 Faraday = Charge of 1 mol of electrons.

So if it tells me two faradays, just assume two electrons.

Weight of Electroplated Metal

W = (I*T*A)/(n*F)

W = Weight of metal electroplated

I = Current in C/s

A = Atomic weight

n = Moles of electrons

F = Faradaysconstant

Farady's Constant

96,485 C/mol

Non-metal Oxides

Non-metalic oxides are going to be acidic oxides.

Metal Oxides

Metallic elemental oxides are going to form basic oxides.


Metalloids are going to form amphoteric oxides. These oxides are the ones that can be both acidic and basic.

Metallic Character

Metallic character is generally going to increase as you move the periodic table.


Isomers contain the same number of atoms of each element, but have different arrangements of their atoms in space.


Isobars are atoms (nuclides) of different chemical elements that have the same number of nucleons.


Allotropes are different forms of the same element. Different bonding arrangements between atoms result in different structures with different chemical and physical properties. Allotropes occur only with certain elements.