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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
early replication
virus genetic material
chemical mutagens
combine with nitrogen base which alters them and causes them to mispair Ex: Nitrous acid --- combines with A and causes it to pair with cytosine
replication in genetic engineering
lytic cycle - productive increase in number of viruses
Impersonating the nitrogen base will
incorporate into the DNA and lead to faulty pairing Ex: 5-bromacil looks like thymine (5BU) pair with guanine instead of Adenine
later replication
viral structurtal protiens
High frequency recombient (HFR)
F plasmid --- chromosome cell becomes HFR HFR mate with F- cell
shapes of genetic engineering
icosahedral, helical, and complex
human growth hormone gene product -- treatment
non productive no new virus particles
X-rays, gamma rays - DNA damage
adsorption for lysogeny
very specific to receptors on host cell and structures on the virus
When occassionally a virus replicates
it will pick up a piece of host DNA instead of virus DNA
virus or nucleic acid will enter the host cell
Forward mutaion
mutant can't make histadine requires histadine as a nutrient
penetration of bacteria by injection
1. membrane fusion - enveloped viruses fuse with plasma membrane of the host (additional step - uncoating - viral nucleic acid released from capsid. 2. phagocytosis - enzyme brings virus in
UV structural changes in the DNA
penetration replication
make more copies of itself often involves destruction of host DNA/ virus genetic materiak can control the metabolism of the cell
gene therapy replacement of a faulty gene
engineer virus -- remove pathogenic gene replace with foreign gene = infected host, microinjection, liposomes, gene guns -- DNA + gold particle -- shot with a gene gun
burst size
number of viruses that come out of the host cell 50-200 new viruses
Transfer DNA donor
recipient to move DNA into cell
Lysozome - destruction of PTG
envelope added to the virus leaves the host cell through the modified areas of the plasma membrane
donor cell F + = F plasmid genes sex pilus, genes transfer recipient F- = no F plasmid
capsid protein coat functions
protect the viral nucleic acid, shape - symettry, attachment to host cell, antigen, some bilayer lipid envelope surround capsid, envelope may contain glycoprotein -- spikes
Applications for genetic engineering
pharmacuticals, agriculture, gene therapy, and gene mapping
burst time
adsorption - relaese 20 mins for bacterial viruses
Back mutation
reverse of original mutation does not require histadine as a nutrient can make its own (less likely)
adsorption attachment of viruses to host cell
very specific receptors on host cell and specific structures on the virus
frost ban -- gene from bacteria inserted into potatoes & strawberries makes them resistant to freezing
penetration for lysogeny
nucleic acid enters host cell, integrate onto host chromosomw --- repressor protein
F+ plasmid transfers to F- cell genes for:
making sex pilus, transfer gene, antibiotic resistant gene R = plasmids
assembly and release for bacterial penetration
assembly mature virus particle, release mature virus particles from host cell, usually lysis of host cell
Basis for genetic engineering
*Double stranded DNA - genetic materia in all living organisms * DNA replication same * genetic code is the same * segment of DNA, any source replicated any cell * DNA out, alter in lab - living cell replicates
nucleic acid wound into helix, capsomeres atach to helix
2 events for gene exchange in bacteria
donor DNA enters recipient cell and the donor DNA enters chromosome
cubic - 20 sided each side triangle (looks like a crystal)
Transformation Griffin - 1928
S = smooth strain
R = rough strain
released DNA fragments donor dead smooth, live R recipient must be in a state of competence log phase, to take up DNA fragments, complimentary base pairing can now make capsule by exposing to piece of DNA from the donor
During virus replication
virus released from cell --- will infect new cell; inject DNA into new cell host DNA --- integrate onto recipient chromosome
Ames Test
screening method to determine if a chemical is a carcinogen - cancer (most mutagens are carcinogens)
Transduction DNA from donor recipient via bacterial virus
virus will attach to host cell, host DNA virus enters host cell, host cell DNA degrades, virus replicates host cell lyses --- viruses
Genetic Engineering
intentional mixing of genes other species by artifical means
4 steps to transfer DNA
1. isolate plasmid and gene of interest 2. cut plasmid and gene of interest 3. mix cut plasmid and gene --- fusion 4. engineered plasmid --- replicate makes more copies of foreign gene gene product protein
nucleic acid structure for genetic engineering
single stranded DNA
single stranded RNA
double stranded DNA
double stranded RNA