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44 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Precision
number of significant figures or uncertainty
Percent error
expresses the relative accuracy of a measurement
Scientific notation
allows us to write a number in an easy-to-read manner/between 1 and 10 multiplied and raised to an exponent
Atom
the smallest unique particle that characterizes an element
Electrostatic forces
attract protons and electrons to each other
Isotopes
atoms of the same element with different mass numbers
Atomic mass
an element’s weighted average of all of the naturally occurring isotopes found in nature
Structural formulas
each compound has a unique arrangement of atoms in the molecular unit
Formula unit
the formula of an ionic compound shows the type and number of ions
Physical properties
undergo physical changes (physical state can change due to changes in temperature like melting point of a solid (or freezing point), boiling point (or condensation point)
Chemical changes
observe the law of conservation of mass
Density
relates to the mass of a substance to its volume
Extensive properties
mass and volume (vary)
Intensive properties
independent from the amount present
Heterogeneous mixtures
can be separated by filtration
Homogeneous mixture
a solution with one phase, can be separated by distillation
Avogadro’s number
6.022E23
Single-replacement reactions
a metal exchanges places with the cation of a different metal
Double-replacement reactions
involve the exchange of ions between two soluble compounds
Stoichiometry
in these problems the balanced equation provides the mole ratios for conversion from moles to another compound in the reaction to moles of another
Limiting reactant
completely consumed; it determines the amount of product formed
Percent yield
actual yield/theoretical yield
Wave mechanics
takes into account the wave nature of the electron
Orbital
the electron is viewed as having a certain probability of existing in a region of space
Shells
principal energy levels
Subshell
the orbitals of one type within a particular shell make up a…
Ionic bonds
the ions formed by the electron exchange are arranged in a lattice structure which are held together by…
Covalent bonds
two nonmetals follow the octet rule by electron sharing
Polar covalent
when electrons are not shared equally and contains a dipole
Non polar covalent
atoms of the same element share electrons equally
Polar
if the bond dipoles are not the same in each direction or they do not cancel
Dispersion forces
occur between all molecules but act exclusively for nonpolar molecules
Dipole-dipole force
if a molecule has a permanent dipole
Hydrogen bonding
involves hydrogen bonded to an F, O, N interacting with an electron pair on an F, O, N on another molecule
Ionic compounds
dissolve in water because the ion-water forces
Polar covalent molecular compounds
dissolve in water as discrete molecular, or they may undergo ionization
Colligative properties
vapor pressure lowering, boiling point elevation, freezing point loweringosmotic pressure elevation (process of osmosis)
Oxidized
the reactant that gives up or loses electrons
Reduced
reactant that gains the electrons
Reducing agent
reactant oxidized
Oxidizing agent
reactant reduced
Rate of RXN
Frequency of collisions & activation energy: the magnitude of the activation energy/the temperature/the concentration of reactants/the particle size in heterogeneous mixtures/a catalyst
Le Chatelier’s Principle
the factors that can shift the point of equilibrium/concentration, pressure, temperature
Types of radiation
alpha particles, beta particles, and gamma rays