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57 Cards in this Set

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attractive forces are so strong atoms, molecules, or ions are held together in specific arrangement



attractive forces are strong enough to pull the particles close together but still allowing them considerable freedom to move about



attractive forces among the particles are very weak, far apart from each other and have almost no influence on one another


The transformation of a substance from one state to another. Every change of state is reversible and is characterized by a free-energy change.

Phase change or change of state

The temperature at which solid and liquid are in equilibrium.

Melting point (mp)

The temperature at which liquid and gas are in equilibrium.

Boiling point (bp)

A process in which a solid changes directly to a gas without going through the liquid state.


A process in which a gas changes directly to a solid without going through the liquid state.


depends primarily on the strength of the attractions between solute and solvent particles relative to the strengths of the attractions within the pure substances.


The clustering of solvent molecules around a dissolved solute molecule or ion.


Some ionic compounds attract water strongly enough to hold on to water molecules even when crystalline.

Solid hydrate

ex: CuSO4.5H2O for every unit of copper sulfate, there are 5 water molecules present

The forces that act between molecules and hold molecules close to one another.

Intermolecular Forces

3 major types of intermolecular forces are


London dispersion

hydrogen bonding

Molecule containing polar covalent bond may have a net molecular polarity. In such cases, the positive and negative ends of different molecules are attracted to each other


The short-lived attractive force due to constant motion of electrons within molecules.

London dispersion Force

an attractive interaction between an unshared electron pair on an electronegative O, N, and F and a positively polarized hydrogen atom bonded to another O, N, or F.

Hydrogen bonds

Molecules are in constant motion in the ________ state. If a molecule is happened to be near the surface of a liquid, and if it has enough energy, it can break free of the liquid and escape into the gas state, called __________.


vaporIn an open container, the gaseous molecule will wander away from the liquid, and the process will continue until all the molecules escape from the container.

In an open container, the gaseous molecule will wander away from the liquid, and the process will continue until all the molecules escape from the container.


If the liquid is in a closed container, the gaseous molecule can’t escape. The random motion of molecule occasionally will bring them back into the liquid. After the concentration of molecule in the gas state has increased sufficiently, the number of molecules reentering the liquid becomes equal to the number of molecules escaping the liquid.

Dynamic equillibrium

In a closed container at equilibrium, the gas molecules make their own contribution to the total pressure of the gas above the liquid according to the Dalton’s law.

Vapor pressure of the liquid

normal boiling point occurs at

760 mm Hg

water covers ___ % of earths surface

water accounts for ___% of mass of adult



water has the highest _______ _____ of any liquid. It absorbs a large quantity of heat while changing the temperature slightly

specific heat

Water has unusually _______________ – it carries away large amount of heat when it evaporates.

heat of vaporization

One whose particles – whether atoms, ions, or molecules- have an ordered arrangement extending over a long range.

Crystalline solid

Cystalline solids

1. Na+Cl- whose constituent particles are ions.

2. diamond or quartz where molecules are held together by covalent bonds.

3. sucrose or ice whose constituent particles are molecules held together by the intermolecular forces.

4.such as silver or iron – three dimensional array of metal ions immersed in electrons that are free to move about.

1. Ionic

2. Colvalent

3. Molecular

4. Metallic

One whose constituent particles are randomly scattered and has no long range structure.

Amorphous solid

The quantity of heat required to completely melt a substance once it has reached its melting point.

Heat of Fusion

The quantity of heat required to completely vaporize a substance once it has reached its boiling point.

Heat of vaporization

Law: Volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure.

Boyle's Law

Law: Volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.

Charles Law

Law: The pressure of a fixed amount of gas at constant volume is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.

Gay-Lussac's Law

Law: Equal volume of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of moles.

Avogadro's Law

Law: Boyle’s law, Charles’ law, and Gay-Lussac’s law together is known as ...

Combined gas law

Law: Relates the effects of temperature, pressure, volume, and molar amount.

Ideal gas law

At 0oC and 1 atm pressure, Standard temperature and pressure (STP), 1 mole of any gas occupies a volume of _____ liters


The amount of pressure exerted by an individual gas in a mixture.

Partial Pressure

A nonuniform mixture that has regions of different composition

Heterogeneous mixture

A uniform mixture that has the same composition throughout.

Homogeneous mixture

A homogeneous mixture that contains particles the size of a typical ion or small molecule.


A homogeneous mixture that contains particles in the range of 2-500 nm diameter.


A substance dissolved in a liquid.


The liquid in which another substance is dissolved.


Having the ability to pull water molecules from the surrounding atmosphere. Some ionic compounds attract water so strongly that they pull water from humid air to become hydrated, such as CaCl2.


Law: The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of the gas over the liquid if the temperature is constant.

-Pressure has virtually no effect on the solubility of a solid in a liquid or a liquid in a liquid.

Henry's law

the number of moles of solute dissolved per liter of solution’.


Weight/Volume Percent Concentration [(w/v)%]

Mathematically, (w/v)% concentration is found by taking the number of grams of solute per milliliters of solution and multiplying by 100.

Lowering concentration by adding additional solvent. the amount of solute remains constant only the volume is increased by adding more solvent.


A substance that produces ions and therefore conducts electricity when dissolved in water.Ionic compounds in aqueous solution can conduct electricity


A substance that ionizes completely when dissolved in water, such as NaCl.

Strong electrolyte

A substance that is partly ionized in water, such as CH3COOH.

Weak electrolyte

A substance that does not produce ions when dissolved in water, such as sucrose.


The properties of a solution that depends on the concentration of a dissolved solute but not on its chemical identity is known as

colligative properties

The passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane separating two solutions of different concentrations.


The amount of external pressure applied to the more concentrated solution to halt the passage of solvent molecules across a semipermeable membrane.

osmotic pressure

red blood cells in

1. hypotonic solution....

2. hypertonic solution....

1. swollen bc water gain

2. shriveled bc water loss

similar to osmosis, except the pores are larger than those in osmotic membrane.