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162 Cards in this Set

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what is chemistry?

chemistry is the study of matter; its properties, composition, structure, interactions, and changes.

what is matter?

matter is the substances and materials that make up our physical universe; anything that has mass and occupies volume is matter.

what did ancient societies do?

produced glass, glazed and fired pottery, purified metals, and studied metallurgy.

what did the ancient Greeks discover?

they were the first to purpose a theory of the structure of matter and introduced the concepts of elements, atoms, and chemical combinations.

what is the scientific method?

collect information (data), form hypothesis, experiment- test hypothesis, and modify the hypothesis.

define theory.

ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of the thing to be explained.

define hypothesis.

proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

what did Antoine Lavoisier discover?

he was the first to state the law of conservation of mass and established chemistry as quantitative science.

what is organic chemistry?

the chemistry of carbon compounds.


examples: proteins, lipids, citric acid.

what is inorganic chemistry?

the chemistry of all other elements.


examples: water (H2O), nitrogen (NO2).

who came up with the idea that facts must be the basis of theory?

Robert Bacon.

who was the first to actually use the scientific method?

Robert Boyle.

what were some of the alchemists goals?

transmutation of base elements to gold and finding the Panacea.

what is qualitative measurement?

focuses on collecting information that is not numerical; look for patterns.


example: temperature- hot, room temp, or cold.

what is quantitative measurement?

measurement of data that can be put into numbers.


examples: data on blood pressure, height, or age.

what are the three parts of measurement?

numerical measurement, units, quality of the measurement.

what is accuracy?

it measures how close you are to an answer.

what is precision?

it measures how close you are to several measurements.

18,734


how many significant digits are there?

5.

103


how many significant digits are there?

3.

0.340


how many significant digits are there?

3.

100


how many significant digits are there?

1.

0.025


how many significant digits are there?

2.

what are fundamental quantities?

they are measured directly.

what are derived quantities?

they are calculated from other quantities.

what significant figures rule should you follow when multiplying or dividing derived quantities?

the answer must have the same number of significant figures as the measurement in the problem with the fewest significant figures.

what significant figures rule should you follow when adding or subtracting derived quantities?

the answer ends at the smallest decimal place where all the measurements have a significant digit.

what is scientific notation used for?

to express very large or very small numbers.

5,400,000


use scientific notation.

5.4x10^6

what is a meter?

(m); base unit of distance.

how many millimeters (mm) are in a meter (m)?

1000 mm = 1m

how many centimeters (cm) are in a meter (m)?

100cm = 1m

how many decimeters (dm) are in a meter (m)?

10dm = 1m

how many kilometers (km) are in a meter (m)?

1km = 1000 m

what is mass?

the measure of the amount of matter present; it is a fundamental quantity; unit is the gram or kilogram; stays the same, independent of gravity.

what is mass measured with?

a balance.

what is weight?

the force of gravity; weight changes with place.

what is weight measured with?

a scale.

what is volume?

V = L(length) x W(width) x H(height)


volume is a derived quantity.

how many milligrams (mg) equal a gram (g)?

1000mg = 1g

what is temperature?

a fundamental quantity; related to the speed at which the particles of matter are moving.

what is temperature measured with?

a thermometer.

what are the different scales for temperature?

Celsius (C), Fahrenheit (F), and Kelvin (K).

what happens at 0 degrees Kelvin (K)?

absolute zero; molecules stop moving; cold as it can get.

what is body temperature?

98.6 F or 37 C

what is boiling point for water?

212 F or 100 C

what is the relation between Kelvin (K) and Celsius (C)?

K = C + 273

what is heat?

derived quantity; calorie or joule.

what is specific heat?

the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1g of any substance by 1.0C

what is density?

measures the way matter fills space; D = M/V.

is the density large or small if it sinks?

density is larger.

is the density large or small if it floats?

density is smaller.

what is the formula for specific gravity?

Sp. Grav = Density of a material or sample/Density of water.

what is a solid?

fixed volume and shape; particles touch; particles vibrate; attractions are strongest.

define amorphous?

no order, randomly arranged.

define crystalline?

highly ordered arrangement.

what is a liquid?

fixed volume but no fixed shape (takes the shape of the container); particles touch but are free to move; attraction is weaker than in the solid, but stronger than in the gas.

what is a gas?

has neither a fixed volume nor a fixed shape; weakest attraction between particles; large distance between particles that move freely; particles move freely.

what is plasma?

very hot gas; charged particles.


examples: stars, sun, flames.

what are elements?

materials that cannot be separated into anything simpler than themselves.

what are compounds?

composed of elements, compounds cannot be separated into simpler substances without changing them to a new material.

what are mixtures?

alloys; two or more substances; not chemically combined; variable in composition.

what is a homogeneous mixture?

the particles are evenly distributed - dissolved.

what is a heterogeneous mixture?

the particles are not evenly distributed.

which type of mixture has phases?

heterogeneous mixture.


example: oil and water.

what are physical properties?

properties that can be determined without changing the type of matter.

what are chemical properties?

properties that describe the ability of a substance to form new types of matter by reaction or decomposition.

what are examples of chemical properties?

whether or not something will burn, if a material will decay or not, will it rust or corrode, is it digestible.

is organic or inorganic a physical or chemical property?

it depends on composition. organic are carbon compounds and inorganic are other elements.

what are evidence of physical properties for organic and inorganic compounds?

organic compounds are molecules, not water soluble, non-polar, and dissolve in oil. inorganic compounds are polar and dissolve in water.

what is a physical change?

a change in physical properties or state that does not alter the composition.


example: boiling, melting, breaking.

what are chemical changes?

new substances are formed as evidenced by changes in properties.


examples: cooking, life, burning, digesting.

can mixtures be separated by causing physical changes?

yes it can be separated.

can pure substances be separated by causing physical changes?

no it cannot, but it can be separated by chemical changes.

what is the law of conservation of mass?

matter is neither created nor destroyed.

what is potential energy?

stored energy; energy of position.


examples: top of waterfall

what is kinetic energy?

the energy associated with motion.


examples: heat, flowing water, electricity, light.

true or false? energy can be transformed.

true.

what is endothermic?

energy absorbed, required.


example: boiling water, life.

what is exothermic?

energy comes out.


example: burning oil, freezing.

what is the law of conservation of energy?

energy is neither created nor destroyed.

what is the formula for percent?

% = part/total x 100

what are some physical properties of metals?

solids, luster (shiny), ductile (stretch), malleable (flexibility), usually have a high melting point, conducts electricity.

what are some chemical properties of metals?

metals do not form compounds with other metals, alloys, metals become cations and form ionic compounds with non-metals.

what are some non-metal physical properties?

some are solids at normal temperature, one is a liquid at normal temperature, some are gases at normal temperature, not luster (shiny), brittle (not flexible), do not conduct well.

what are some non-metal chemical properties?

form covalent compounds with other non-metals, become anions and form ionic compounds with metals.

what does it mean when an element is diatomic?

two atoms stuck together.


example: o2, h2, n2

what are monatomic gases?

column VIIIa; these are noble gases; they do not form compounds.

what are semi-metals or metalloids?

stairs of boron; intermediate in properties; semi conductors; between metals and non-metals.

what is a molecule?

2 or more atoms bonded by a covalent bond. it is a neutral particle.

molecular compound.


CO2

carbon dioxide.

molecular compound.


NH3

ammonia.

molecular compound.


CH4

methane.

what are ions?

electrically charged atoms or groups of atoms.

what are cations?

an atom or molecule with a positive electric charge (metals).

what are anions?

an atom or molecule with a negative electric charge (non-metals).

what is a polyatomic ion?

"molecule" that is an ion.

what is an ionic compound?

compounds held together by the attractions of opposite (or unlike) charges.

ionic compounds.


NaCl

sodium chloride.

ionic compounds.


CaS

calcium sulfide.

ionic compounds.


Li2O

lithium oxide.

ionic compounds.


AlCl3

aluminum chloride.

what are binary compounds?

2 elements (metal and non-metal); you name the cation first and then the anion you would end it with -ide.

binary compound.


NaBr

sodium bromide.

binary compound.


KCl

potassium chloride.

binary compound.


Al2O3

aluminum oxide.

what are ternary compounds?

3 elements; polyatomic ions.

ternary compound.


Na2SO4

sodium sulfate.

ternary compound.


Ca(NO3)2

calcium nitrate.

what is a reactant?

substances present before the reaction.

what is a product?

substances present after the reaction.

what is the atomic number?

the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

what are halogens?

salt formers; column VIIA; -1 charge.

what are alkali metals?

first column (IA - except H); +1 charge.

what are alkaline metals?

2nd column (IIA); +2 charge.

what is Dalton's atomic theory?

elements are composed of tiny invisible particles called atoms, all matter (except pure elements) is composed of combinations of atoms, all atoms of an element are identical.

who discovered the electron?

J.J. Thompson

who discovered the proton?

Goldstein and Thompson

who did an experiment to show were neutrons were located in an atom?

Rutherford

where are the protons located in an atom? electrons? neutrons?

protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus of an atom and the electrons occupy most of the space in an atom.

what does the number of protons equal?

the atomic number.

what does the number of protons and neutrons equal?

the mass number.

how can you determine the charge?

looking at the periodic table or subtracting the protons and the electrons.

what are isotopes?

atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.

name each Bohr orbit from closest to the nucleus to the farthest and say how much each orbit holds.

K orbit and it holds 2 electrons, L orbit and it holds 8 electrons, M orbit and it holds 18 electrons.

what is the valence shell?

the outermost or highest occupied layer.

name the orbitals from closest to the farthest.

s, p, d, f...

what orbital(s) can you find in the 1st shell?

s orbital.

what orbital(s) can you find in the 2nd shell?

s and p orbitals.

what orbital(s) can you find in the 3rd shell?

s, p, and d orbitals.

what orbital(s) can you find in the 4th shell?

s, p, d, and f orbitals.

how many electrons does the s orbital have?

2.

how many electrons does the p orbital have?

6.

how many electrons does the d orbital have?

10.

how many electrons does the f orbital have?

14.

how can you tell the sizes of atoms based on a periodic table?

down a family the size increases, but going across a period the size gets smaller.

how can you tell the ionization energy based on a periodic table?

down a family the energy decreases, but going across a period the energy increases.

how can you tell the electronegativity based on a periodic table?

down a family the electronegativity decreases, but going across a period it increases.

what is ionization energy?

energy to remove an electron.

what is electronegativity?

attraction an atom has for electrons.

what is a solid?

fixed shape and volume, atoms touch, and it has the most attraction between particles.

what is a liquid?

fixed volume but takes the shape of the container, larger space between particles (atoms move but touch), and it has less attraction than a solid.

what is a gas?

takes the shape and volume of the container, large space between particles (atoms don't touch), and it has the least attraction of the three states of matter.

what happens when you put in energy?

solid --> liquid --> gas

what happens when you take out energy?

gas --> liquid --> solid

why is a stronger bond more stronger or stable?

because it contains less energy.

what is an ionic bond?

electrons are transferred from the valence shell of metal atoms to the valence shell of non-metal atoms.

what is a covalent bond?

electrons from the valence shell of a non-metal are shared with another non-metal.

what does it mean when a molecule is polar?

one end of the molecule is slightly negative and the other part is slightly positive.

what is a dipole (di-pole)?

a molecule that is electrically asymmetric.

what does the prefix mono mean?

one.

what does the prefix di mean?

two.

what does the prefix tri mean?

three.

what does the prefix tetra mean?

four.

what does the prefix penta mean?

five.

what does the prefix hexa mean?

six.

what are ternary compounds?

they are made of three different elements; contains a polyatomic ion.

what is a binary acid?


HCl

-ide anions, which are changed to end in -ic acid.


hydrochloric acid.

what are ternary acids that have an anion which ends in -ate?


H2CO3

hydrogen is left out and the polyatomic anion is changed from ending in -ate to -ic acid.


carbonic acid.

what are ternary acids that have an anion which end in -ite?


H2SO3

hydrogen is left out and the polyatomic anion is changed from ending in -ite to -ous acid.


sulfurous acid.

what is produced in a neutralization reaction?

salt and water.


acid + base ---> salt + water

how much does a mole equal?

6.022x10^23