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19 Cards in this Set

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liver function tests (LFTs)
Tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in serum (clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted).
stool culture
Test for microorganisms present in feces.
stool gusiac or Hemoccult test
Detection of occult (hidden) blood in feces. This is an important screening test for colon cancer.
lower gastrointestinal series (barium enema)
X-ray images of the colon and rectum obtained after injection of barium into the rectum.
upper gastrointestinal series
X-ray images of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine obtained after administering barium by mouth.
X-ray examination of the biliary system performed after injection of contrast into the bile ducts.
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
the contrast medium enters via needle through the abdominal walls into the liver.
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)
contrast medium is injected via catheter (tube) through the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and duodenum and then into bile ducts.
computed tomography (CT)
Imaging technique in which a series of x-ray films are obtained to visualize internal organs in multiple views including in cross section. A CT scan is performed using a circular array of x-ray beams to produce the cross-sectional image based on differences in tissue densities.
abdominal ultrasonography (ultrasound examination or sonography)
Sound waves beamed into the abdomen produce an image of abdominal viscera. Ultrasonography is especially useful for examination of fluid-filled structurs such as the gallbladder.
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Magnetic and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body. This technique does not use x-rays and shows subtle differences in tissue composition.
liver scan
Image of the liver after injecting radioactive material into the blood stream. Radioactive material (a pharmaceutical radionuclide) is injected intravenously and taken up by the liver cells. An image of the liver (scintiscan) is made using a special scanner (gamma camera) that records radiosotope uptake by the liver cells.
gastric bypass
Reducing the size of the stomach and diverting good to the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy). This is bariatric (bar/o = weight) surgery for severe obesity.
gastrointestinal endoscopy
Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract using an endoscope. A physician places a flexible fiberoptic tube through the mouth or the anus to view parts of the gastrointestinal tract.
Virtual colonoscopy
CT colonography combines CT scanning and computer technology to enable physicians to examine the entire length of the colon noninvasively in just minutes. Because this is only a screening procedure, patients with positive findings require conventional colnoscopy afterward.
Visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen with a laparoscope inserted through small incisions in the abdomen.
liver biopsy
Removal of liver tissue followed by microscopic visualization. A physician inserts a needle through the skin to remove a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination. The average sample is less than 1 inch long. The procedure helps doctors diagnose cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, and tumors of the liver.
nosogastric intubation
Insert of a tube through the nose into the stomach. Physicians use a nasogastric (NG)tube to remove fluid postoperatively and to obtain gastric or intestinal contents for analysis.
paracentesis (abdominocentesis)
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen. This procedure is necessary to drain fluid (accumulated in ascites) from the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity.