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General Form aA + bB = cC + dD


what are the reactants?

A and B

General Form aA + bB = cC + dD


What are the products

C and D

General Form aA + bB = cC + dD


What are a, b, c, and d.

moles

What is Energy

The ability to promote change or do work

Kinetic Energy

Energy of movement

Potential Energy

Energy due to Structure or location of substance

Chemical Energy

Potential Energy held in molecular bonds

Thermodynamics

The ability of energy to be converted from one form to another.

First law of thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created or destroyed


It can be transformed from one type to another


ex: chemical energy to heat energy

Second law of thermodynamics

Transformation of energy from one form to another increases entropy

Entropy

The degree of disorder of a system. A measure of randomness of molecules in a system. This energy cannot be harnessed to do work.

Energy in Chemical Reactions

Total Energy(Enthalpy) = Usable energy(free energy) + Unusable energy(Entropy)

Energy in chemical reactions formula

H = G + (T)(S)

H = G + (S)(T)


What do these stand for??

H = enthalpy (total energy) .


G = Free energy (Energy available for work) .


S = entropy (unusable energy) .


T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (k) .

Spontaneity of Chemical Reactions is decided by what?

The change in energy

What is the formula for Spontaneity of chemical reactions?

delta(G) = delta(H) - (T)delta(S)

G = H - (T)(S)


What do these stand for??

H = enthalpy (total energy) .


G = Free energy (Energy available for work) .


S = entropy (unusable energy) .


T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (k) .



What is an Exergonic Reaction

Free Energy (deltaG) is negative and released.


Spontaneous

What is an Endergonic Reaction

Free Energy (deltaG) is positive and gained


Not spontaneous

ATP: what is its proper name?

Adenosine Triphosphate.


ATP is the primary carrying molecule in the cell.



How is ATP bonded?

ATP is bonded between the 2 terminal PO4 high energy bonds

How does ATP give energy to the cell to do work?

The terminal PO4 is removed, energy is released and can be "captured" by the cell to do work.

What is the Hydrolysis of ATP?
What kind of reaction is it?

Delta(G) of -7.3 kcal/mole so Exergonic Reaction.
Energy is released.

In the hydrolysis of ATP what is the chemical reaction taking place?

ATP is broken down to create ADP + P.


This is central to many biological reactions.

What do many proteins use as a source of Energy?

ATP

An endergonic reaction can be coupled to an exergoinc reaction. What is the condition that allows this to happen?

The net free energy of both reactions has to be negative supporting a spontaneous reaction.

About how many times does ATP undergo Hydrolysis and re-synthesis every day?

10,000

What thing functions as ATP-binding sites?

Specific Amino acid sequences in proteins function as ATP-binding sites

On average how many proteins bind ATP?

20% of all proteins bind ATP, but that number is low balling it.

What are the 2 ways to make ATP

Substrate-Level Phosphorylation and Chemiosmosis

What is Substrate-level phosphorylation?

Enzyme directly transfers phosphate from one molecule to another molecule

What is Chemiosmosis?

Energy stored in an electrochemical gradient is used to make ATP from ADP and Pi

Is a spontaneous reaction fast?

No, it can be slow. Spontaneous just means it happens naturally.

What is a Catalyst?

Agent that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction.

Is the Catalyst used up during the reaction?

No it is not consumed during reactions.

What is a Protein Catalyst?

Protein Catalysts speed up the rate of biochemical reactions.

What is Activation Energy?

The energy used to start a reaction. It is the energy required to get the stuff close enough to cause a bond rearrangement.

How does an Enzyme effect the activation?

The addition of an Enzyme allows the activation energy needed for a reaction to be much lower for the reaction to progress.

What are 2 ways to overcome activation energy?

Large amounts of HEAT.


Using Enzymes.

How do Enzymes work? (2 parts)

The use small amounts of heat to push reactants to a transition state.


They also used direct participation through temporary bonding.

What are some Enzyme features? (3)

Active site - the place where reactions take place.


The Substrates - The reactants that bind to an active site.


Enzyme/substrate complex - the form that is taken when the enzyme and substrate are bonded.

How does the binding work inside of an Enzyme?

The binding stresses chemical bonds allowing for easier breakdown/binding

How many types of reactions can a catalyst do?

Only one type of reaction

What does induced fit mean?

Interaction involving conformation changes. It forces that stuff in.

Enzyme function is directly effected by what variables?

Substrate concentration and inhibitors

What are inhibitors?

Molecules that prevent the substrate from binding to the enzyme.

What is the allosteric site?

This is the extra spot on the back of the enzyme that is like the fuel tank for the enzyme. It allows the substrate to be changed better.

What do inhibitors do? (2 part)

Decrease the rate of product formation in enzymes.
They may mind to the active site or allostreic site

Competitive Inhibitors

Molecules that bind to an active site taking the place of a substrate. They may have a similar form to substrate.

Noncompetitive inhibition

Inhibitors that bind to allosteric site.


This inhibits the ability of substrate to bind. It can still happen, it is just slower.

What is a prostetic group?

Group of small molecules permanently attached to the enzyme

What is a cofactor?

Usually inorganic ion that temporarily binds to an enzyme.

What is a Coenzyme?

Organic molecule that participates in the reaction but is left unchanged afterward

Enzymes are affected by their environment.
How?

Most enzymes function maximally in a narrow range of temperature and pH. Outside of this does not go well.

Chemical reactions occur in what type of pathway?

Metabolic pathways

Each step of a chemical reaction occurring in a metabolic pathway is coordinated by what?

Specific enzymes

There are 2 types of metabolic pathways. What are they?

Catabolic (Exergonic - spontaneous)


Anabolic (Endergonic - not spontaneous)

Cataboic reaction is a ???? reaction

Exergonic - spontaneous


neg delta

Anabolic reaction is a ???? reaction

Endergonic - not spontaneous


pos delta

Catabolic Reactions do what?

Breakdown reactants. Used for recycling and to obtain energy for endergonic reactions.

Cataboic reaction - where is the energy stored?

ATP and NADH

Anabolic reactions are what type of reaction?

Biosynthetic reactions. Endergonic - must be coupled to exergoinc reactions.

Oxidation does what?

Removes electrons (net positive charge)

Reduction does what?

Addition of electrons (net negative charge)

Redox reaction is what?

Electron removed from one molecule and is then added to another

Electrons removed by oxidation are used for what?

Electrons that are removed by oxidation are used to create energy intermediates like NADH

NADH is ???? to make ATP

NDH is oxidized to make ATP.


It can donate electron during synthesis reaction

Regulation of metaboic pathways? How does this happen?

Gene regulation - turn on or off genes.


Cellular regulation - cell-signaling pathways like hormones.


Biochemical regulations - feedback inhibition where product of pathways inhibits early steps to prevent over-accumulation of prodcut. Slows down the first part to ease up on the later slower steps.