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27 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who were plebians?
The common people, which included farmers, artisans, small merchants, and traders.
Who were patricians?
wealthy landowners.
Describle the 12 tables.
In 451 B.C., Rome's first written law code was carved onto 12 stone tablets that were set up in the Forum. Yhey showed the stricy separation between patricians and plebeians. Lawa prohibited plebeians from serving as consuls, entering the Senate, or marrying patricians.
Describe the Punic Wars
In 264 B.C., Carthage surrendered the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. Rome gets these cities, and expands in to southern greece. In 146 B.D., Hannibal led his army on a 15 year assault on Rome from the north. With war elephents, he moved through the Alps and across Italy. Tome won after they attacked Carthage. That forced Hannibal's retreatIn 146 B.C., Hannibal commits suicide to evade capture. Rome invaded Carthage. It is said that Romans "salted the earth" so nothing will ever grow in Carthage again; no survivors.
Describle the Battle of Cannae.
It was during the second Punic WAr. Hannible's greatest victory-defeated 4,800 men: 8 legions.
Julius Caesar.
Caesarwon victories in Spain and had attracted a large following in Rome. He formed an alliance with Marcus Lucius Crassus, a wealthy General. This alliance was known as the First Triumvirate. It hained control of Rome but was soon split by rivalries. Caesar piled up new conquests in Gaul and Britain. Hecrushed an army led by Pompey.
Describe Julius Caesar's reforms.
Between 49 and 44 B.C., Caesar won a string of victories in the Middle East, North Africa, and SPain. On his return to Rome, he pardoned many senators who had supported Pompey. In 44 B.C., he was appointed dictator for life. He distributed land to the poor and granted Roman citizenship to people in provinces outside Italy. This helped unite the empire. He increased pay for the soldiers and moved to end corruption in the provinces. He introduced a more accurate calander called the Julian calandar.
Describe The Battle of Cannae.
During the second Punic War, Hannibal's greatest victory-defeated 4,800 men: 8 legions.
Describe Octavian.
Caesar's adopted 18 year old grandnephew as his son. After Caesar's death, Octavian formed the Second Triumvirate, with Mark Antony, and Marcus Lepidius. After killing caesar's assasins, The second Triumvirate went into a power struggle between Antony and Octavian. When Antony married Cleopatra, queen of egypt, octavian feared they planned to seize power. Thus, he declared war. In 31 B.C., at the naval battle of Actium in Greece, Octavian defeated them. Antony nd Cleo. fled back to egypt. They later commited suicide when they heard news that Octavian was in Alexandria. The next year, Egypt became part of the Roman empire.In 27 B.C., Ocyavian was given the name AUgustus, by the senate, because they realized that peace depended on his leadership. This name was normally reserved for the gods. Peace was finally restored under augustus after 100 years.
When was the Pax Romana?
Between 27 B.C. and 180 A.d.
Describe the Pax Romana.
An efficiant government ensured peace, and allowed the Roman Empire to grow in wealth and power. Romans saw the city of Rome as the symbol of Roman eternity. During the Paz Romana, Rome became an international city. Its population grew to nearly one million, as people flocked to the capital in search of education, advancement, and entertainment. People from the eastern Maditerranean brought with them the achievements of Hellenistic civilization as well as older cultures. Roman emperors undertook costly projects to beartify the city. Its culture was now much richer and more sophisticated. During the Paz Romana, trade flourished. Coined money came about.
Describe the negative effects of the Paz Romana.
During the Paz Romana, governing the empire was costly, so taxes increased greatly. Emperors tried to limit costs by reducing the size of the army, however, that weakned their defenses. The economy suffered because Romans importedmore goos tahn they exportedTo increase the supply of money at home, emperors issued new coins, and mixed lead with the gold. THis devalued the coins, becaue their value was based on gold content. Thus, merchants increased prices.
Describe Roman Roads.
Paving stones formed the surface of the road. Kerb stones held in paving stones made a channel for water to run away. Broken stones, pebbles, and cement made a firm base. THere was also a big layer of stones. There was also cement mixed with broken tile.
What are aqueducts?
canal-like stone structures that tunneled through mountains and spanned valleys. Romans built them to carry water from reservoirs in the country to the cities.
What were legions?
Legions were groups of about 6,000 soldiers. Each legion was divided into smaller units that could be moved around swiftly
Describe the sread of Christianity in the Roman Empire.
Unlike other teligions within the Roman Rmpire, Christianity aroused official persicution because Christians refused to worship the emperor. Toman authorities had excused Jew from emperor worshop out of respect for their ancient traditions. But Roman authorities saw Christians as dangerous troublemakers who were winning converts throughout te empire.Persecution strengthened tather than weakened the new religion. During periods of intense persecution, some renounced their faith, but many others became martyrs. Many people were impressed by a faith that inspired such devotion in its followers, and they converted in great numbers.In 305 A.D., Christianity was made theofficial religion of the Roman empire.
Describe why Christiananity appealed to many people.
The simple, direct message of Chtistianity appealed to many people. Especially the poor and oppressed found hope in the God who loved people regardless of their place in society. Equality, himan dignity, and the promise of eternal life were comforting teachings. Also, many early Christians were women who broughy other members of their families into the faith. Women sometimes conducyed worship services, and enjoyed equality with men.
Who was Marcus Aurelius?
The emperor of Greece, who was a student of the Greek Stoic philosophers. He spent much of his reign fighting on the frontiers of the Roman Empire. To restore peace, he allowed many Germans to settle inside the frontiers.
When did Marcus Aurelius die?
In 180 A.D.
What happened when Marcus Aurelius died?
Rome plunged into civil wars and chaos. The ROmans never set up an effective way for one emperor to succeed another. Often, an emperor would name his son as his heir, and the Senate would approve the new ruler. However when Aurelius died, this system died and, THE PAX ROMANA ENDED. Civil wars plagued Rome as generals competed for the throne. During 234 and 284 A.D., at least 26 emperors ruled. All but one suffered violent deaths. During these years, the authority of Rome weakened. Also, Civil wars disrupted commerce in the cities. At the same time, invaders attacked the empire.
Describe the reforms of Diocletian.
He divided the empire in half. He took control of the wealthier eastern provinces. He re organized the civil service. He enlarged the military, trained new calvary, and built new roads and forts along the frontier.He set limits and required people to remain in occupations.
Describe Constantine.
He gained power in 312 A.D., and reunited the empire. The edice of Milan was 313 A.D., and this was a freedom of worship for everyone. Constantine built a new capital at Byzantium called Constantinople. This signified the decline of Rome. It was a Christian capital. Constantine also continued Diocletians reforms. He made artisans and farmers tied to trades. This made peoples desire to work hard decrease.
When did Constantine die?
337 A.D
Describe the Germanic Tribes.
The Germans included many different groups of seminomadic herders and farmers.An elected king ruled each tribe with the aid of a coumcil of chiefs. Each cheif led a band of young warriorsIn 375 A.D., the Hins, the Hins, a fierce nomadic people from Central Asia, attacked the Germanic trible of Eastern Europe.In 451 A.D., Tome and some Germanic tribes stopped the Hun advance. Attila withdrew his forces.
Describe the fall of rome and how it came about.
In 476 A.D., a minor Germanic chief, Odoacer, captured Rome and forced the emperor to give up the throne. Odoacer then proclaimed himself king of Italy. This was known as the "fall of Rome." However, Rome did not collapse suddenly.
Describe the geography of the middle kingdom.
It was very isolated, and it was surrounded by barriers.
What is the Dynastic order?