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62 Cards in this Set

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Animals require food for
fuel, carbon skeletons, and essential nutrients
A nutritionally adequate diet satisfies three needs:
Fuel (chemical energy) for all the cellular work of the body
The organic raw materials animals use in biosynthesis (carbon skeletons to make many of their own molecules)
Essential Nutrients-substances that the animals cannot make for itself from any raw material and therefore must obtain in food in prefabricated form
Most of the food energy that goes into an animal is used to make
ATP
ATP is produced as a result of the
as a result of the oxidation of organic fuel
molecules (carbohydrates fats and proteins) in cellular respiration
When animal take
in more calories than it needs to produce ATP, excess can be used for
biosynthesis to grow or produce storage molecules
When glucose levels rise above a set point the pancreas secrete _____ in to blood
insulin
Insulin decreases sugar levels by
enhance the transport of glucose into the body cells and stimulates the liver and muscle cells to store glucose and glycogen, dropping blood glucose levels
When glucose levels drop below a set point the pancreas secretes ______ into the blood
glucagon
Glucagon decreases sugar levels by
the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose into the blood, increasing
the blood glucose level
if the diet of a person is chronically deficient in calories __________ results
undernourishment
Overnourishment,
obesity, is the result of excessive food intake
In mammals a
hormone call _____ produced by
adipose cells is a key player in a complex feedback mechanism regulating fat
storage and use
leptin
A high leptin
level cues
the brain to depress appetite and to increase energy consuming
molecular activity  and body-heat
production
Loss of body fat causes ____ leptin levels in the blood, signaling ___________________
low
the brain to increase appetite and weight gain
besides fuel and carbon skeletons, an animal's diet must also supply ______
Essential nutrients
An animal whose diet is missing one or more essential nutrients is said to be
malnourished
Animals need __
amino acids to make proteins
20
must be obtained
from food
Essential amino acids
# of amino acids are essential in the adult human
8
# of a. acidsessential for infants.... the difference for human
9----histidine
Other nutrients we require in our diet
Fatty acids
Vitamins
Minerals
the four main stages of food processing are
indigestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination
the act of eating
Indigestion
is the process of breaking food down into molecules small enough for the body to absorb
digestion
Polysaccharides break down to
(into mono and disaccharides)
Fats break down into
(glycerol and fatty acids)
Proteins break down into
(amino acids)
Nucleic acids break down into
(nucleotides)
after the food is digest the animal's cells take
up small molecules such as amino acids and simple sugars from the digestion
compartment
absorption
undigested material passes out of the digestive compartment
Elimination
-rhythmic waves of contractions by smooth muscles in the walls of the canals, push along
Peristalsis
muscular ring-like valves, regulate the passage of material between specialized chambers of the canal
Sphincters
 include
the salivary glad the pancreases, the liver and gallbladder
Accessory glands
Oral Cavity begins the digestion by digesting _____
Carbs
Saliva contains ________ an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller
polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
salivary amylase
The tongue tastes food, manipulates it during chewing and helps shape the food into a ball called
Bolus
The stomach is located
in the upper abdominal cavity, just below the diaphragm
_______ is secreted in a inactive form called _______ by specialized chief cells in
gastric pits
Pepsin pepsinogen
Pepsinogen is secreted by specialized
chief cells in
gastric pits
Parietal cells also in the pits secrete_______ which converts pepsinogen to the active pepsin only when both reach the stomach this creates the lumen of the stomach
HCl
______ also in the pits secrete hydrochloric acid which
Parental Cells
protects the stomach from being digested by itself
Mucus
·        
is the major organ of digestion and absorption
small intestine
Length of small intestine
6 M
In the first 25 cm of the small intestine
the
duodenum
Liver produces
Bile
Bile is stored in the
Gall Badder
Most of the enzymatic hydrolysis of food macromolecules and most of the absorption of nutrients into the blood occurs in_______
in the small intestine
Bile salts act as
Detergents
that are by-products of red blood cell destruction in the liver
pigments
Digest Starches in the Small intestine
Pancreatic amylases
protein-digesting enzymes (intestinal Epithelial)
aminopeptidase
protein-digesting enzymes (pancrease)
trypsin, chymotrypain, and carboxypeptidase
enzyme that hydrolyzes fat molecules into glycerol, fatty acids, and glycerides
Liptase
Most of the digestion occurs in the _____ of the small intestine
duodenum
3 sections of the small intestine
jejunum
Ileum
Duodenum
A major function of the colon
to recover water that has entered the alimentary canal as the solvent to various digestive juice
Diarrhea results in _____ water is absorbed
insufficient
constipation if too much water is
absorbed
Living in the large intestine is a rich flora
bacteria
can make any protein
E. Coli
As a byproduct of their metabolism, many colon bacteria generate gases including
Methane and H2S