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9 Cards in this Set

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Distinguishing Characteristics- Prokaryotes ("Prenucleus")
1. DNA not enclosed w/in a membrane. Singular circularly arranged chromosome.2. NOT associated with histones3. Lack membrane-enclosed organelles4. Cell walls almost always have complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan5. Binary fission. (DNA copies, split into two)
Distinguishing Characteristics- Eukaryotes ("True Nucleus")
DNA is in nucleus and in multiple chromosomes. Separated from cytoplasm by a nuclear membrane. 2. DNA associated with proteins- Histones and Non-histones.3. Membrane-enclosed organelles: Mitochondria, ER, Golgi Complex, Lysosomes and Chloroplasts. 4. If cell walls= simple!5. Mitosis
What are the 3 possible shapes of bacteria?
Coccus: sphericalBacillus: rod-shapedSpiral
Most bacteria are monomorphic, meaning that they.
maintain a single shape.
-long, filamentous appendages that propel bacteria
Flagella
Ribosomes
Site of protein synthesis-2 subunits consisting of protein and rRNA-smaller/less dense than euk.-70S -some antibiotics work by inhibiting protein synthesis on prok. ribosomes
Cytoplasm
substance of the cell inside plasma membrane- ~80% water-Primarily proteins, carbs, lipids, inorganic ions & low-molec weight carbons-thick, aqueous, semitransparent, elastic-major structures: nucleoid, ribosomes, reserve deopsits-protein filaments-LACK cytoskeleton & cytoplasmic streaming
Sporulation/Sporogenesis
Process of endospore formation within a vegetative cell-begins when a key nutrient becomes scarce/unavailable
Endospores
-specialized "resting" cells formed by gram + bacteria when essential nutrients are depleted.-highly durable dehydrated cells with thick walls and additonal layers-found internal to bacterial cell membrane-can survive extreme heat, lack of water and exposure to toxic chemicals/radiaton in environment-** 1 per cell