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37 Cards in this Set

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Deme

Members of a species that produce offspring

Gene pool

All the genetic info. In the breeding pop

Ex some people carry the sickle -cell allele & some do not

Reproductive isolation

Any circumstance that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material, such as when 2 pops, are separated by a large body of water or a major mountain range

Micro-evolution

Small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next

Macro-evolution

Large-scale evolution, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of generations

Equilibrium

A condition in which the system, is balanced stable & unchanging

Ex: in areas of west Africa where malaria is common, the frequency of the sickle cell allele remains relatively constant

Hardy-Weinberg law of equilibrium

A mathematical model in pops. Genetics that reflects the relationship b/w frequencies of alleles & of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a pop. Is undergoing evolutionary changes.

Point mutation

Replacement of a single nitrogen base w/ mother base, which may/ may not affect the amino acids for which the triplet coded

Mutations involving incorrect base pairings

Synonymous point mutation

A neutral point mutation in which the substituted nitrogen base creates a triplet coded to produce the same amino acid as that is the original triplet

Non-synonymous point mutation

A point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a diff. Amino acid from that or the original triplet

Frameshift mutatiob

The change in a gene due to the insertion/ deletion of one / more nitrogen bases, which causes the subsequent triplets to be rearranged & the codons to be read incorrectly during translation

Transposable elements

Mobile pieces of DNA that can copy themselves into entirely new areas of the chromosomes

KlineFelters syndrome

A chromosomal trisomy in which males have an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY condition; affecting individuals typically have reduced fertility

Spontaneous mutations

Random changes in DNA THat occur during cell division

Have no known cause


Caused by specific environmental agents, usually associated w/ human activity

Induced mutations

Mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals/ or to radition

Mutagens

Substances, such as toxins, chemicals, or radiation, that may induce genetic mutations

Increasingly becoming known

Fitness

Average # of offspring produced by parents w/ a particular genotype compared with to the # of offspring produced by parents w/ another genotype

Reproductive success

Directional selection

Selection for one allele over the other allele, causing the allele, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction

Stabilizing selection

Selection against the extremes of the phenotypic distribution, decreasing the genetic diversity for this trait in the pop

For ex: Living humans whose birth with weights are in the middle of the range have a better chance of surviving and reproducing than these born w/ the lowest & highest weights

Disruptive selection

Selection for both extremes of the phenotypes distribution; may eventually lead to a speciation event

Two new species arise @ the extremes

Melanic

Refers to an individual w/ high concentration

Non- melanic

Refers to an individual w/ low concentration of melanin

Positive selection

Process in which advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in frequency in pop

Whereby an organism biology is shaped by selection for beneficial traits

Sickle- cell anemia

A genetics blood disease in which the red blood cells become deformed & sickle - shaped, decreasing their ability to Carry oxygen to tissues

Hemolytic anemias

Conditions of insufficient iron in the blood due to the destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases, toxins or infections pathogens

Abnormal hemoglobin

Hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to & carrying oxygen

Balanced polymorphism

Situation in which selection maintains 2 or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a pop

Anthropogenic

Refers to any effect caused by humans

Hemoglobinopathies

A group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglob

Thalassemia

A genetic blood disease in which the hemoglobin is improperly synthesized, causing the red blood cells to have a much shorter life span

Found in Europe( especially in Italy & Greece), & the pacific, reduces/ eliminates hemoglobin become clumped inside the red blood cells.

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase ( G6PD)

A enzyme that acids in the proper functioning of red blood cells; it’s deficiency, a genetic condition, leads to hemolytic anemia.

Endogamous

Refers to a pop. In which individuals breed only w/ other members of the pop

Discouraging reproduction outside the group

Exogamous

Refers to a pop. In which individuals breed only w/ non members of their pop

An exogamous society extends reproduction outside its community

Founder effext

The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small pop. That has become isolated from the parent pop. Due to the Genetic input of only a few colonizers

Huntington’s chorea

A rare genetic disease in which the central nervous system degenerates & the individual loses control over voluntary movements, w/ the symptoms often appearing b/w age 30 & 50

Admixture

The exchange of genetic material b/w 2 or more pops

Demic diffusion

A pops movement into an area previously uninhabited by that group

Middle eastern people’s invented farming in their homelands of Western Asia, than expanded & moved, interacting w, interbreeding w,& exchanging ideas about food production w/ local European pops.