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67 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

The ____ consists of three interrelated components: blood, the heart, and blood vessels.

Cardiovascular System

_____ transports various substances, helps regulate several life processes, and affords protection against disease.


_____ is a connective tissue consisting of plasma in which various cells and cell fragments are suspended.

Blood (the definition)

While plasma is the extracellular fluid within the blood, ______ is the extracellular fluid that directly bathes body cells and is constantly renewed by the blood.

Interstitial fluid

What are the three general functions of blood?

transportation, regulation, and protection

Blood transports _____ (to cells), _____ (to the lungs for exhalation), _____, (from the G.I. Tract to cells), ____, ____, and ____.

oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, heat, and waste

Blood regulates ___ through the use of buffers, ____, and the _____ of cells.

pH, body temperature, water content

Chemicals that convert strong acids or bases into weak ones.


Give some examples of how blood protects us.

It clots when there is an injury, white blood cells protect against disease through phagocytosis, and blood proteins such as antibodies, interferons, and complement, also help protect against disease.

Blood, which is slightly alkaline, is about 38*C (or ____ *F)


When blood has a high oxygen content, it is ____ than when it has a lower oxygen content.


Blood constitutes about 8 percent of the total body weight. The blood volume is 5-6 liters (1.5 G) in an average sized _____ and 4-5 liters ( 1.2 G ) in _______

adult male, an adult female

A liquid extracellular fluid that contains dissolved substances, and formed elements, which include cells and cell fragments.


Blood is about ___ percent formed elements and about ____ percent plasma.

45, 55

99% of the formed elements are _____.

red blood cells

The _____ is formed of White Blood cells and platelets.

buffy coat

Plasma is about ____ % water and ___% solutes, most of which are proteins.

91.5, 8.5

Proteins that are confined to the blood; they are synthesized mainly by liver cells.

plasma proteins

_____, which are the most plentiful plasma proteins, account for about 54 percent of all plasma proteins. They help maintain proper blood osmotic pressure.


____, which compose 38% of plasma proteins, include antibodies, or immunoglobulins.


Defensive proteins produced during certain immune responses.

Antibodies/ immunoglobulins

_____ makes up about 7% of plasma proteins and is a key protein in the formation of blood clots.


_____, which is the liquid portion of blood, functions as a solvent and suspending medium; absorbs, transports, and releases heat.


The formed elements of the blood include ____, ____, and _____.

RBC's, WBC's and Platelets

What are some examples of WBC's?

neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils.

RBC's and WBC's are _____, but _____ are cell fragments.

whole cells, platelets

The percentage of total blood volume occupied by RBC's


The normal range of hematocrit for adult females is about ____ %; for adult males, it is about ____ %.

38-46; 40-54

____, which is stimulated by the hormone testosterone, stimulates the hormone that stimulates the production of RBC's.


_____ is a lower than normal number of RBC's.


In ____, the percentage of RRBCs is abnormally high, and the hematocrit may be 65% or higher.


Name two risks that can occur if the viscosity of blood is increased.

increased risk of a stroke, and high blood pressure

The process by which the formed elements of blood develop is called

hemopoiesis or hematopoiesis

____ becomes the primary site of hemopoiesis in the last three months before birth, and continues as the source of formed elements after birth and throughout life.


_____ is a highly vascularized connective tissue located in the microscopic spaces between trabeculae of spongy bone tissue.

Red Bone Marrow

Red bone marrow cells contains _____ which are cells that have ability to develop into many different types of cells.

pluripotent stem cells.

As a person ages, blood begins to be made by ____.

Yellow Bone Marrow

____regulate the differentiation and proliferation of particular formed elements.

hemopoietic growth factors

____, produced by the kidneys, increases the number of red blood cell precursors.

Erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced by the liver that stimulates the formation of platelets from megakaryocytes.


small glycoprotein hormones typically produced by cells such as red bone marrow cells and maccrophages, stimulate white blood cell formation


Red blood cells contain the oxygen-carrying protein _____ which gives whole blood its red color.


_____, which are mature red blood cells, are biconcave discs with a simple structure; they lack a nucleus and other organelles and can neither reproduce nor carry on extensive metabolic activities.


Cellular oxygen deficiency, called ____, may occur if too little oxygen enters the blood.


Based on the presence or absence of ___, blood is characterized into different blood groups.


There are at least ___ blood groups, and more that one hundred antigens that can be detected on the surface of red blood cells.


Blood types A, B, AB, and O fall under which blood group?

ABO blood group

The transfer of whole blood or blood components into the bloodstream.


People with AB blood are sometimes called

universal recipients

People with type O blood are called

universal donors

_____ are distinguished from one another by the shapes of their nuclei and the staining properties of their cytoplasmic granules.

White Blood Cells

White Blood Cells are able to leave the bloodstream by a process termed ______. During this, WBC's roll along the endothelium that forms bloody capillary walls, stick to it, and squeeze between the endothelial cells.


What are the three main types of lymphocytes?

B Cells, T Cells, and natural killer cells

____ are particularly effective in destroying bacteria and inactivating their toxins.

B Cells

_____ attack viruses, fungi, transplanted cells, cancer cells, and some bacteria, and are responsible for transfusion reactions, allergies, and the rejection of transplanted organs.

T Cells

____ attack a wide variety of infectious microbes and certain tumor cells.

Natural killer cells

Red Blood Cells outnumber white blood cells about _____.


____ is an abnormally low number of white blood cells.


An increase in the number of WBC's above 10,000 u/L, is a normal, protective response to stresses such as invading microbes, strenuous exercise, anethesia, and surgery.


Thrombocytes are _____. They are cell fragments that have a lifespan of 5-9 days.


____ is a series of responses that stops bleeding when blood vessels are injured.


____ is the loss of a large amount of blood from the vessels, prevented by hemostasis.


The process of platelets contacting and sticking to parts of a damaged blood vessel, such as collagen fibers of the connective tissue underlying the damaged endothelial cells

platelet adhesion

After platelet adhesion, platelets liberate the contents of their vesicles in a phase called _____. Liberated chemicals activate nearby platelets resulting in the decrease of blood flow through the injured vessel.

platelet release reaction

The ____ of blood clotting occurs rapidly, within a matter of seconds if trauma is severe.

extrinsic pathway

Substances that suppress or prevent clotting (are present in the blood)


A blood clot, bubble of air, fat from broken bones, or a piece of debris transported by the bloodstream is called

an embolus