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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 5 special senses?
smell, taste, vision, hearing, and equilibrium
_______ is the science of the eye.
_______ is the science of the ear.
What is the sense of smell?
What is sense of taste?
Which receptors are the ones that carry impulses to the CSF?
1st order neurons
-bipolar neurons with cilia or olfactory hairs.
Olfactory receptors
-columnar epithelium.
Supporting cells
-stem cells which replace receptors monthly.
Basal cells
-produce mucus.
Olfactory glands
The first order neuron is ________.
Cranial nerve I (Olfactory)
What are the steps in olfaction?
1. The odorant dissolves mucus and binds to receptors on the neuron.
2. The sodium channels open.
3. Depolarization occurs.
4. The nerve impulse is triggered.
5. The first order neuron is cranial I nerve.
________ occurs when the sense of smell decreases in sensitivity. This process is rapid.
Why does olfaction have a low threshold?
Only a few molecules of a certain substance need to be present in air to be perceived as an odor.
___________ is added to natural gas so that is can be smelled.
Methyl mercaptan
Axons from the olfactory receptors form what?
Olfactory nerves
__________ neurons within the olfactory bulb form the olfactory tract that synapses on the primary olfactory area of the temporal lobe.
Second order neurons
Other pathways lead to the __________ lobe where identification and association of odor occurs.
-dry mouth.
What are the 5 classes of taste stimuli?
1. Sweet
2. Sour
3. Bitter
4. Salty
5. Umami
About how many taste buds are found on the tongue, soft palate, and larynx?
Anatomy of the Taste Buds
1. Basal Cells
2. Supporting Cells
3. Receptor Cells
-can form new supporting and receptor cells.
Basal cells
What taste stimuli are we most sensitive to?
What taste stimuli are we less sensitive to?
Sweet & Salty
The first order neurons is made of gustatory fibers in which cranial nerves?
Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), Vagus (X)
Where do the signals of the gustatory pathway travel?
Thalamus, limbic system, and hypothalamus
What part of the cerebral cortex provides the conscious perception of taste?
Parietal lobe
-protect and lubricate the eye.
-produce oily secretions that keep lids from sticking together.
Tarsal glands
-a mucous membrane which covers the eye.
-help protect the eyes from foreign objects, perspiration, and sunlight.
Eyelashes & eyebrows
-found at the base of the eyelashes.
If the sebaceous glands become infected, they form a what?
-produces tears.
Lacrimal glands
What bacterial enzyme do tears contain?
-made of the cornea and sclera.
Fibrous tunic (outer layer)
-most anterior part of the eye. It is transparent and helps focus light.
A _________ develops if the cornea is uneven.
-the white of the eye. It is a dense irregular connective tissue layer made of collagen and fibroblasts. It provides shape and support for the eye.
-allows drainage of fluid. An opening at the junction of the sclera and cornea.
Canal of Schlemm
-made of the choroid, ciliary body, iris, pupil, lens and suspensory ligaments.
Vascular tunic (middle layer)
-made of pigmented epithelial cells and blood vessels. It provides nutrients to the retina.
-secretes aqueous humor and contains muscles that alter the shape of the lens for accommodation which allows people to focus on an object.
Ciliary body
-made of smooth muscle and is the colored portion of the eye. It is the shape of a flat donut and is suspended between the cornea and the lens.
The opening in the center of the iris is the __________. It functions in regulating the amount of light that enters the eye.
What contracts in bright light to shrink the pupil?
Circular muscles
What contracts in dim light to enlarge the pupil?
Radial muscles
-avascular, made of crystalline proteins arranged in layer like layers in an onion.
The lens is held in place by the ____________ ligaments and its function is to focus light on the retina.
Suspensory ligaments
What is the function of the external ear?
Collect sound
-curved 1 inch tube of cartilage and bone leading into the temporal bone.
External-auditory canal
The _________ glands produce cerumen which is ________.
Ceruminous, ear wax
-the eardrum. Made of epidermis, collagen & elastic fibers, and simple cuboidal epithelia.
Lympanic membrane
-occurs when a hole is present in the ear. Caused by an explosion, scuba diving, or ear infection. The person will experience pain, ringing, hearing loss, or dizziness.
Perforated eardrum
-bones of the ear.
-attached to the eardrum.
Malleus (hammer)
-attached to the stapes.
Incus (anvil)
-attached to the membrane of the oval window.
Stapes (stirrup)
-leads from the ear to the nasopharynx. Helps to equalize pressure on both sides of the eardrum.
Auditory/Eustachian tube
-set of tubelike cavities in temporal bone.
Bony labyrinth
The bony labyrinth is made of what?
Semicircular canals, vestibule, and cochlea lined with periosteum and filled with perilymph
The bony labyrinth surrounds and protects the what?
Membraneous labyrinth
-set of membraneous tubes containing sensory receptors for hearing and balance and filled with endolymph.
Membraneous labyrinth
What is the membraneous labyrinth made of?
Utricle and saccule of the vestibule, 3 semicircular ducts, and cochlea
-contains 3 fluid filled channels: the scala vestibuli, scala tympani, and cochlear duct.
-cochlear nerve that controls hearing and balance.
Vestibulo (VIII)
What part of the ear collects sound waves?
What does the eardrum do?
What do the ossicles do?
The oval window vibrates ______ more vigorous than the eardrum.
What move the hair cells against the tectorial membrane inside the cochlear duct?
Pressure fluctuations
-damage to hair cells from antibiotics, high pitched sounds, and anticancer drugs. The louder the sound the quicker the hearing loss.
-due to perforated eardrum or ossicle damage.
Conduction deafness
-maintains balance at rest. It maintains the position of the head relative to the force of gravity.
Static equilibrium
-maintains the position of the head during sudden movement of and type- rotation, deceleration, or acceleration.
Dynamic equilibrium
What do otoliths do?
They are calcium carbonate crystals that move against the gelatinous otolithic membrane in the saccule and utricle when the head moves.
Otoliths stimulate ______ in the membrane and cause a release of _______________ onto the vestibular branches of the vestibulochochlear nerve which sends an impulse to the brain.
Cilia, neurotransmitters