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82 Cards in this Set

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1. Angiotensinogen - protein enzyme converted to angiotensiogen 2 to stimulate vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion to raise blood pressure
2. Erythropoietin „³ 15% of body¡¦s supply.
Stimulates thyroid
a. Stimulates growth of the thyroid gland and secretion of thyroid hormone.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
Produced in second half of cycle to maintains thickness of uterine lining in case
egg is fertilized after release. Levels fall before menstruation.
Aabout 10% of all cases, causes in part by cell destruction in pancreas. In children around age 12 called juvenile diabetes but can occur later in life.
Type 1 insulin-dependent (IDDM)
Adipocytes produce secretion that interferes with glucose uptake by other cells.
Causes body to rely on fat and protein breakdown for energy. Leads to major circulatory problems and nerve damage.
Diabetes Mellitus pathology
Occurs when a diabetic injects too much insulin or pancreatic tumors
Causes rapid uptake of glucose from blood, patient becomes hypoglycemic, weak, and hungry - Leads to insulin shock, brain is so deprived of glucose that patient becomes disoriented, has convulsions, and becomes unconscious.
Thousands of enzymes are activated at one time enabling a very small stimulus to produce very large effect.
Enzyme Amplification
Are both exocrine (produce egg & sperm cells) and endocrine (mostly steroid hormones).
From adipose cells, acts on hypothalamus to signal satiety (enough to eat)
Although the blood of obese people has high levels, they may lack receptors for it.
Largest endocrine gland, consists of two lobes wrapped around trachea below
the larynx.
Takes over regulation of the pregnancy and regulates fetal development. Main two are
1. Estrogen
2. Progesterone
In other animals, influences pigmentation of the skin, hair, and feathers. Unknown effect in human fetus since MSH is not circulated in humans.
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH)
From amino acids, include pituitary & hypothalamic hormones-Bind to cell membrane and act through second messengers (bind surface receptors which activates G proteins, cAMP or cGMP, and enzymes which influence the cell processes).
Peptide Hormones
Hyposecretion = underactivity: Hypersecretion = overactivity
Hypopituitarism - results in prolonged steroid treatment, blood clots, tumors, CVA, other causes.
Disorders of Pituitary
From cholesterol (lipids), include sex hormones & corticosteroids (from adrenal glands).Cross cell membrane and bind to DNA to activate particular genes in that cell.
Steroid Hormones
Targets kidneys - Na retention and K excretion.
Most hormones fall into three chemical classes (your author does not include Monoamines like norepinephrine, epinephrine, & TH).
Hormone Action and Chemistry:
Absent from the adult human pituitary but present in the human fetus and other animals.
Pars Intermedia of Anterior Pituitary
Secrete lesser androgens and estrogen.
Stimulate adrenal gland cortex
a. Regulates stress response
b. Stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
From Leydig (interstitial) cells located between sperm ducts-Stimulates development of male reproductive system in fetus, secondary sexual characteristics, sex drive, sperm production, and sexual instinct.
Elongated spongy gland inferior and dorsal to stomach - Both exocrine (makes digestive enzymes secreted to sm. Intestine) and endocrine
Pancreatic islet cells - produce at least five hormones.
The blood has various levels of different hormones in it all the time-Cells have receptors for several different hormones with three types of interaction effects: Synergistic, Permissive, Antagonistic.
Hormone interaction
Secreted by mammary cells which _ size & number during pregnancy.
a. Stimulate mammary glands to synthesize milk (remains elevated while nursing).
Prolactin (PRL)
Produced during the night, thought to regulate daily sleep-waking cycle(circadian rhythms), may suppress gonadotropic secretions. May regulate mood and be related to SAD and PMS which are both treated with phototherapy-Regulates sexual development.
Hypothalamus & pituitary (these secrete most hormones), thyroid, parathryroids, thymus, pancreas (exocrine and endocrine), adrenal glands, and gonads.
Basic Glands
Located in pelvic cavity of females. Make eggs and secrete hormones.
Secreted after meals to store excess nutrients -lowers blood glucose levels by Stimulating body cells to absorb glucose & amino acids when their levels rise in the blood-Stimulates muscle and adipose tissue to store glycogen and fat.
Two lobe-shaped glands located mediastinum, superior the heart-Large in infants and shrinks with age. Secretes thymosin & thymopoeitin hormone.
Regulate development and activation of disease fighting T-cells.
Secretes hormones that regulate the release by anterior pituitary - Gntropin-releasing hormone, controls release of both LH and FSH from gonads.
Nine Releasing & Inhibiting
Produced during the day, involved in sleepiness, alertness, thermoregulation, and Mood. Converts to melatonin at night.
Hyposecretion of glucocorticoids and mineral corticoids causes hypoglycemia,
leads to fatal dehydration & electrolyte imbalances Pituitary secretes excess ACTH stimulates melanin secretion and skin bronzing in light skin.
Addisons Disease
Several different types from many different tissues, stimulate mitosis and cell division. Some travel in blood while others are released into nearby cells.
Growth factors (GF)
Antagonist to parathyroid hormones. Promotes calcium deposit into bone - lowers blood calcium levels. Targets kidney, bones, intestines,Important mainly in children or to treat osteoporosis.
Produced by cells and act locally. Eg. Multiple effects include: In uterus, cause smooth muscle contraction during child birth-Reduce gastric secretions, lower BP, and inhibit clotting.
Hormones levels are monitored in the body hormone levels further inhibits release of additional hormones. Maintains homeostasis in body.
Negative Feedback Loops
Cone shaped growth in third ventricle, secretions peak by age 5 years and are only at 25% by maturity.
Regulate gonads in animals with seasonal breeding and may regulate puberty in humans.
PINEAL GLAND (epiphysis)
Secreted when blood glucose levels fall between meals and raises blood glucose
Levels. In liver,stimulates glycogen hydrolysis releasing glucose into blood.
Produced in the first half of the cycle-Required for maturation of egg-In puberty promote secondary sexual characteristics (hair & fat) & growth of uterus & vagina.
Due to dietary iodine deficiency (needed to make TH).
Simple Goiter
Calcitriol - (Ch. 8) regulates calcium handling by bones, sm. intestine, and kidney
Erythropoietin - stimulates bone marrow to produce red blood cells when O2 levels low.
Hypothalamus secretes TSH -Stimulates thyroid to secrete TH - TH stimulates metabolism in most body cells - TH exerts negative feedback on pituitary (inhibits release of TSH and pituitary unresponsive to hypothalamus TRH) - TH levels fall - TSH released
Example of negative feedback loop
Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) - released in response to high blood pressure
Increases water output (increased urine output and Na retention) to lower blood pressure.
Send secretions into ducts emptying on/in nearby surfaces or cavities.
Enteric hormones - about 10 different hormones that regulate the digestive system.

Epinephrine (adrenaline) & norepinephrine (noradrenaline)„³raise blood glucose in emergency
Thryroid Secretions
Botth promote adolescent bone growth and bone mass.
Sex steroids
Hypersecretion of glucocorticoid caused by tumor, disturbs carbohydrate and protein metabolism with hyperglycemia, hypertension, muscle weakness, and edema causing muscle and bone loss.
Cushings syndrome
Master gland, located in sella turcica of sphenoid bone.
Attached to the hypothalamus by a the infundibulum stalk.
In infants have normal appearance but show stunting, thickened facial features, low body temperature, lethargy, and brain damage.

Most abundant hormone from pituitary, targets soft tissue and bones. Has body wide effect promoting mitosis and tissue growth by stimulating target cells in body tissue including.

Growth hormone (GH)
Graves- hypertrophy, autoimmune disease, abnormal antibodies mimic the effect of TSH - increase TH secretions. Symptoms: increase HR, metabolic
rate, weight loss, nervousness, abnormal sweating, & exophthalmos (bulging eyes).
Exopthalmic Goiter
¾ of the pituitary.
Anterior Pituitary (hypophysis)
part of sympathetic nervous system, formed by specialized neurons which
respond to stimulation by secreting hormones that mimic effect of SNS (fight or flight) but their effects last longer.
Adrenal Medulla
Cells that have receptors for specific hormones>
Target Cells
Stimulates gonads
Females stimulates ovulation (release of egg) and causes secretion of progesterone.
Males - called ICSH - stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Control electrolyte balance.
Pyramid shaped glands on superior surface of kidneys formed by two glands: adrenal medulla (inner core) and adrenal cortex (outer layers).
Increase the bodys metabolic rate (BMR) Increasing oxygen usage and heat production.
Promote alertness, bone growth & remodeling, development of skin, hair, teeth, nails.
Thyroxine T3 and T4 Triiodothyronine
Hypersecretion of adrenal medulla hormones caused by tumor mimics overactivity of the SNS causing hypertension, increase metabolic rate, etc. Leads to fatigue, exhaustion, lower disease resistance
Adrenal Disorders
Increases fluid levels in blood. Acts on the kidneys to increase water retention, reduce urine output, and prevent dehydration.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Important after menopause when ovaries stop making estrogen.
Secrete over 25 steroid hormones collectively called corticosteroids (corticoids).
Adrenal Cortex
Various reproductive roles. Levels surge during nursing and labor. Stimulates smooth muscle contractions in the uterus during childbirth to deliver fetus and in the mammary glands to stimulate milk ejaculation.
Oxytocin (Pitocin)
Enlargement of the thyroid.
Has tract (bundle of axons) that runs down the stalk. Hormones synthesized in neurons in hypothalamus are transported down the axon tract to posterior pituitary, and stored until nerve signal triggers their release (oxytocin and ADH).
Posterior Pituitary
Hyposecretion or inaction of insulin make body cells unable to take up glucose
Diabetes Mellitus
Forms the floor and walls of the third ventricle.
Many of its functions are carried out via tropic effects on the pituitary gland.
Regulates primitive functions of the body like water balance and sex drive.
Infants - have normal appearance but show stunting, thickened facial features,
low body temperature, lethargy, and brain damage.
Made by heart to inhibits aldosterone. Na is secreted from kidneys and water follows to decrease BP.
ANF (atrial natriuretic factor)
Secrete most hormones, many with broad effects in body.
Hypothalamus and Pituitary
Synthesizes and secretes six main hormones Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) - stimulates gonads (targets ovaries and testes)
Stimulates ovaries to develop eggs
Stimulates the testes to produce sperm
Anterior lobe
Ductless glands that add their secretions directly to the bloodstream via dense networks of capillaries surrounding the glands and cells.
Chemical messenger secreted into the bloodstream by endocrine glands or
organs and carried by the blood to target cells where it stimulates a physiological
response. Some hormones can function as neurotransmitters.

Chemicals that act on another gland to cause that gland to release hormone. E.g. Gonadotropic hormone is made by the pituitary and targets the gonads causing the ovary and testes to release their own hormones.
Secreted in response to ACTH and targets all tissues - Raises blood glucose levels and stimulates fat & protein breakdown - Most important is cortisol hydrocortisone) -counteracts inflammatory response, Aids body in adapting to stress and to repair damaged tissue, Long term secretion suppresses immune system.
Four glands embedded in thyroid gland that secrete(PTH) - responds to low blood Ca, effects bonrs, kidneys, & intestines
Raises blood calcium levels by removing calcium from bone & prevents its loss from kidney.
In adults-characterized by sluggishness, sleepiness, weight gain, constipation,
dry skin and hair, elevated blood pressure, and swelling around eyes and other tissues. Produces excess TSH in attempt to stimulate thyroid gland and produces hypertrophy of gland.
Control male development and reproduction, sustain libido in both sexes, Stimulate male fetal development and body hair growth in puberty.
Heart, stomach, small intestine, placenta.
Other organs that release hormones
Stimulus continues to elevated hormone levels increasing intensity
Lead to disease states if not corrected. E.g. OT released during labor continues until child born.
Positive Feedback

Hypoparathyroidism causes rapid decline of blood calcium and leads to fatal tetany - Hyperparathyroidism causes bones to soften and become fragile, raises blood Ca and increases development of kidney stones (calcium phosphate).