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94 Cards in this Set

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Meninges

Fibrous connective tissue membranes on the brain and spinal cord

Dura Mater

Outer layer of Meninges


Tough, White, fibrous


Lines vertebral canal




Contains the Dural Sinus - Accumulates blood and returns it to circulation

Arachnoid

Middle layer of Meninges


Thin threadlike strands




Subarachnoid Space- filled with CSF

Pia Mater

Innermost layer of Meninges


Thin and delicate


Tightly bound to surface of brain and spinal cord

Spinal Cord

Cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brain stem at the foramen magnum




31 pairs



Cervical Enlargement

Inferior cervical region




Gives rise to nerves of the upper limbs

Lumbar Enlargment

In the lumbosacral region




Gives rise to nerves of the pelvic region and lower limbs



Medullary Cone

Inferior to the lumbar enlargment where cord tapers to a point




L1



Cauda Equina

Arising from lumbar enlargement and medullary cone




Bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5

Spinal Nerves

31 pairs-


8 Cervical


12 Thoratic


5 Lumbar


5 Sacral



C1-C7

Emerge superior to the corresponding vertebrae



Rest of spinal nerves

Emerge inferior to the corresponding numbered vertebrae



Anterior (Ventral) Root

Group of 6-8 nerve roots that emerge from the anterior surface of the spinal cord

Posterior (Dorsal) Root

6-8 nerves that emerge from the posterior surface of the spinal cord

Anterior Ramus, Posterior Ramus, and Meningeal Branch

Divisions of the nerves after they emerge from the inter-vertebral foramen

Roots

Approach the Spinal Cord

Rami

Lead Away from the Vertebral Column

Pleaxus

Anterior rami branch and merge repeatedly to form weblike nerve plexuses

Cervical Plexus

Deep in neck




C1- C4




Supplies skin and muscles of the neck and shoulder, diaphragm



Brachial Plexus

Deep to clavical and axilla




C5-C8, T1




Skin and muscles of the UE

Lumbroscaral Plexus

Lumber region of back




T12, L1-L5, S1-S4




Skin and muscles over lower abdominal wall, LE, buttocks, external genitalia

Sensory (Ascending) Tracts

Groups of nerves that carry sensory information from the PNS to the CNS

Motor (Descending) Tracts

Groups of nerves that carry motor information from the CNS to the PNS


Spino

Sensory tract from spinal cord to cerebellum

Spinal

Tract is motor to the spinal cord

Posterior Column Tract

Transmits fine touch and proprioception to the brain

Spinothalamic Tract

Transmits pain and temperature sensations to the brain

Spinocerebellar Tract

Transmits proprioception to the brain

Corticospinal Tract

Conscious control of skeletal muscles

Subconscious Tract

Subconscious regulation of balance, muscle tone, eye, hand, and upper limb position

Reflex

Quick, involuntary, stereotyped reactions of he glands or muscles to stimulation

Cranial Reflexes

Controlled by one of the cranial nerves




Tend to take place in the facial or head area




Reflexes like constriction of the pupils in response to light

Spinal Reflexes

Involves only the spinal nerves and is not processed by the brain




Ex- Patellar reflex

Somatic Reflexes

Response that involves a skeletal muscle contraction in response to stimuli

Autonomic Reflexes

Involves response of an organ




Ex- Contraction of the intestines



Reflex Arc

Somatic reflex employs a reflex arc, in which the signal travels along a pathway




1. Somatic Receptors 2. Afferent Nerve Fibers 3. Integrating Center 4. Efferent Nerve Fibers 5. Effectors



Stretch Reflex

When a muscle is suddenly stretched it fights back

Tendon Reflex

Reflexive contraction of a muscle when its tendon is tapped

Ipsilateral Reflex Arc

Sensory and motor output are on the same side of the spinal cord

Monosynaptic Reflex Arc

Reflex involves one central synapse

Flexor/Withdrawal Reflex

Quick Contraction of flexor muscles resulting in the withdrawal of a limb from and injurious situation

Intersegmental Reflex

Input and output occur at different levels of the spinal cord



Crossed Extensor Reflex

Contraction of extensor muscles in the limb opposite from one that is withdrawn




Allows you to keep balance



Contralateral Reflex

Input and output and on the opposite side

Rostral

Toward the forehead



Caudal

Toward the spinal cord

Cerebrum

83% of the brain volume





Cerebellum

Second largest brain region, located in posterior cranial fossa




Marked by Gyri, Sulci, and fissures

Brainstem

Portion of the brain that remains if the cerebrum and cerebellum were removed




Diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Longitudinal Fissure

Deep groove that separates cerebral hemispheres

Gyri

Thick Folds

Sulci

Shallow Grooves

Corpus Callosum

Thick nerve bundle at bottom of longitudinal fissure that connects hemispheres

Blood Brain Barrier

Strictly regulates what substances can get from the bloodstream to the tissue fluid of the brain




Two heavily guarded areas- Blood Capillaries and Capillaries of the Choroid Plexus

Highly permiable substances in Blood Barrier

Water, Glucose, lipid soluble substances

Slightly permiable substances in Blood Barrier

Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and waste products urea and creatinine



Ventricles

Four internal chambers within the brain

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Clear, colorless liquid that fills the ventricles and canals of CNS

Choroid Plexus

Spongy mass of blood capillaries on the floor of each ventricle




Ependyma- nueroglia that lines the ventricles and covers choroid plexus

Functions of CSF

Buoyancy, Protection, and Chemical Stability



Medulla Oblongata

Begins at foamen magnum




Functions- Heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing rate, reflex centers

Pons

Anterior bulge in brain stem




Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, 8




Sensory roles and Motor roles




Increases and decreases heartrate





MIdbrain

Short segment of the brainstem




Superior Colliculi- upper bulges control visual attention and reflexes




Inferior Colliculi- lower bulges recieve signals from ear



Recticular Formation

Web of gray matter that runs through all levels of brainstem




Loose network of neurons and neural fibers




Regulates sleep, respiration, and posture



Cerebellar Hemispheres

Halves that make up the cerebellum







Vermis

Connection between the right and left cerebellum hemisphere

Cerebellar Cortex

Cortex of gray matter with folds

Arbor Vitae

Section of white matter that helps to also hold the cerebellum together

Diencephalon

Made up of Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus



Thalamus

80 % of diencenphalon




Two oval masses of grey matter


Relay station for cerebrum impulses




Touch, pressure, pain, temp




Channels impulse to cerebrum for discrimination, localization, and interpretation



Hypothalamus

Forms part of the walls of the third ventricle




Infundibulum- A stalk that connects to the pituitary gland




Major control center of autonomic nervous system and endocrine system





Epithalamus

Tin roof over third ventricle




Contains pineal gland




Connects limbic system to the rest of the brain

Cerebrum

Two cerebral hemispheres divided by longitudinal fissure- corpus callosum




Gyri increases surface area




Sulci separates different lobes




Transverse fissure- between cerebrum and cerebellum




Cerebral cortex- Grey matter that forms the outermost portion of cerebrum





Frontal Lobe

Primary Motor Cortex




Motor planning, intitation of action




Broca's Area- motor of speech





Parietal Lobe

Primary Sensory Cortex




Recieves fibers conveying touch, proprioception, pain, tempurature sensations



Temproal Lobe

Wernicke's Area- Language Comprehension



Occipital Lobe

Primary Visual Cortex

Insula

Hidden by other regions of the cerebrum




Understanding language




Sense of taste




Sensory information from visceral receptors

Projection Tracts

Extends vertically between higher and lower brain and spinal cord centers




Carries information between cerebrum and rest of body

Commissural Tracts

Cross from on cerebral hemisphere through bridges called commissures

Association Tracts

Connect different regions within the same hemisphere



Limbic System

Important center of emotion and learning




Cingulate Gyrus- Arches over the top of Corpus Callosum




Hippocampus- In the medial temporal lobe, memory




Amygdala- Immediatly rostral to the hippocampus, emotion

Basal Ganglia

Regions of gray matter scattered throughout white matter of the cerebral hemispheres




Control eye movements




Gross autonomic movement




Muscle tone

Cerebral Cortex

Layer covering the surface of the hemispheres of the cerebrum




Central sulcus separates primary and motor areas



Cerebral Lateralization

The difference in structure and function of the cerebral hemispheres




Highly correlated with handedness



Left Hemisphere

Categorical Hemisphere




Sciences and language

Right Hemisphere

Representational Hemisphere




Imagination and insight




Comparison of sounds, sights

Electroencephlogram (EEG)

Monitors surface electrical activity of the brain waves



Brain Waves

Rhythmic voltage changes resulting from snychronized postsynaptic potentials at the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex




4 types distinquished by amplitude (mV) and frquency (Hz)

Alpha Waves

Frequency 8-13 Hz




Parieto-occiptal regions




Dominate EEG when person is awake or resting




Suppressed when eyes are open engaging in mental task

Beta Waves

Frequency 14 to 30 Hz




Front or parietal region




Stimulated during mental activity and sensory stimulation

Theta Waves

Frequency 4 to 7 Hz




Normal in children and in drowsy or sleeping adults




Predominance in theta waves in awake adults suggests emotional stress or brain disorders



Delta Waves

Frequency less than 3.5 Hz




Awake children and adults in a deep sleep




A predominance of delta waves in awake adults indicates serious brain damage

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