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94 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


Fibrous connective tissue membranes on the brain and spinal cord

Dura Mater

Outer layer of Meninges

Tough, White, fibrous

Lines vertebral canal

Contains the Dural Sinus - Accumulates blood and returns it to circulation


Middle layer of Meninges

Thin threadlike strands

Subarachnoid Space- filled with CSF

Pia Mater

Innermost layer of Meninges

Thin and delicate

Tightly bound to surface of brain and spinal cord

Spinal Cord

Cylinder of nervous tissue that arises from the brain stem at the foramen magnum

31 pairs

Cervical Enlargement

Inferior cervical region

Gives rise to nerves of the upper limbs

Lumbar Enlargment

In the lumbosacral region

Gives rise to nerves of the pelvic region and lower limbs

Medullary Cone

Inferior to the lumbar enlargment where cord tapers to a point


Cauda Equina

Arising from lumbar enlargement and medullary cone

Bundle of nerve roots that occupy the vertebral canal from L2 to S5

Spinal Nerves

31 pairs-

8 Cervical

12 Thoratic

5 Lumbar

5 Sacral


Emerge superior to the corresponding vertebrae

Rest of spinal nerves

Emerge inferior to the corresponding numbered vertebrae

Anterior (Ventral) Root

Group of 6-8 nerve roots that emerge from the anterior surface of the spinal cord

Posterior (Dorsal) Root

6-8 nerves that emerge from the posterior surface of the spinal cord

Anterior Ramus, Posterior Ramus, and Meningeal Branch

Divisions of the nerves after they emerge from the inter-vertebral foramen


Approach the Spinal Cord


Lead Away from the Vertebral Column


Anterior rami branch and merge repeatedly to form weblike nerve plexuses

Cervical Plexus

Deep in neck

C1- C4

Supplies skin and muscles of the neck and shoulder, diaphragm

Brachial Plexus

Deep to clavical and axilla

C5-C8, T1

Skin and muscles of the UE

Lumbroscaral Plexus

Lumber region of back

T12, L1-L5, S1-S4

Skin and muscles over lower abdominal wall, LE, buttocks, external genitalia

Sensory (Ascending) Tracts

Groups of nerves that carry sensory information from the PNS to the CNS

Motor (Descending) Tracts

Groups of nerves that carry motor information from the CNS to the PNS


Sensory tract from spinal cord to cerebellum


Tract is motor to the spinal cord

Posterior Column Tract

Transmits fine touch and proprioception to the brain

Spinothalamic Tract

Transmits pain and temperature sensations to the brain

Spinocerebellar Tract

Transmits proprioception to the brain

Corticospinal Tract

Conscious control of skeletal muscles

Subconscious Tract

Subconscious regulation of balance, muscle tone, eye, hand, and upper limb position


Quick, involuntary, stereotyped reactions of he glands or muscles to stimulation

Cranial Reflexes

Controlled by one of the cranial nerves

Tend to take place in the facial or head area

Reflexes like constriction of the pupils in response to light

Spinal Reflexes

Involves only the spinal nerves and is not processed by the brain

Ex- Patellar reflex

Somatic Reflexes

Response that involves a skeletal muscle contraction in response to stimuli

Autonomic Reflexes

Involves response of an organ

Ex- Contraction of the intestines

Reflex Arc

Somatic reflex employs a reflex arc, in which the signal travels along a pathway

1. Somatic Receptors 2. Afferent Nerve Fibers 3. Integrating Center 4. Efferent Nerve Fibers 5. Effectors

Stretch Reflex

When a muscle is suddenly stretched it fights back

Tendon Reflex

Reflexive contraction of a muscle when its tendon is tapped

Ipsilateral Reflex Arc

Sensory and motor output are on the same side of the spinal cord

Monosynaptic Reflex Arc

Reflex involves one central synapse

Flexor/Withdrawal Reflex

Quick Contraction of flexor muscles resulting in the withdrawal of a limb from and injurious situation

Intersegmental Reflex

Input and output occur at different levels of the spinal cord

Crossed Extensor Reflex

Contraction of extensor muscles in the limb opposite from one that is withdrawn

Allows you to keep balance

Contralateral Reflex

Input and output and on the opposite side


Toward the forehead


Toward the spinal cord


83% of the brain volume


Second largest brain region, located in posterior cranial fossa

Marked by Gyri, Sulci, and fissures


Portion of the brain that remains if the cerebrum and cerebellum were removed

Diencephalon, midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

Longitudinal Fissure

Deep groove that separates cerebral hemispheres


Thick Folds


Shallow Grooves

Corpus Callosum

Thick nerve bundle at bottom of longitudinal fissure that connects hemispheres

Blood Brain Barrier

Strictly regulates what substances can get from the bloodstream to the tissue fluid of the brain

Two heavily guarded areas- Blood Capillaries and Capillaries of the Choroid Plexus

Highly permiable substances in Blood Barrier

Water, Glucose, lipid soluble substances

Slightly permiable substances in Blood Barrier

Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, and waste products urea and creatinine


Four internal chambers within the brain

Cerebrospinal Fluid

Clear, colorless liquid that fills the ventricles and canals of CNS

Choroid Plexus

Spongy mass of blood capillaries on the floor of each ventricle

Ependyma- nueroglia that lines the ventricles and covers choroid plexus

Functions of CSF

Buoyancy, Protection, and Chemical Stability

Medulla Oblongata

Begins at foamen magnum

Functions- Heart rate, blood vessel diameter, breathing rate, reflex centers


Anterior bulge in brain stem

Cranial nerves 5, 6, 7, 8

Sensory roles and Motor roles

Increases and decreases heartrate


Short segment of the brainstem

Superior Colliculi- upper bulges control visual attention and reflexes

Inferior Colliculi- lower bulges recieve signals from ear

Recticular Formation

Web of gray matter that runs through all levels of brainstem

Loose network of neurons and neural fibers

Regulates sleep, respiration, and posture

Cerebellar Hemispheres

Halves that make up the cerebellum


Connection between the right and left cerebellum hemisphere

Cerebellar Cortex

Cortex of gray matter with folds

Arbor Vitae

Section of white matter that helps to also hold the cerebellum together


Made up of Thalamus, Hypothalamus, and Epithalamus


80 % of diencenphalon

Two oval masses of grey matter

Relay station for cerebrum impulses

Touch, pressure, pain, temp

Channels impulse to cerebrum for discrimination, localization, and interpretation


Forms part of the walls of the third ventricle

Infundibulum- A stalk that connects to the pituitary gland

Major control center of autonomic nervous system and endocrine system


Tin roof over third ventricle

Contains pineal gland

Connects limbic system to the rest of the brain


Two cerebral hemispheres divided by longitudinal fissure- corpus callosum

Gyri increases surface area

Sulci separates different lobes

Transverse fissure- between cerebrum and cerebellum

Cerebral cortex- Grey matter that forms the outermost portion of cerebrum

Frontal Lobe

Primary Motor Cortex

Motor planning, intitation of action

Broca's Area- motor of speech

Parietal Lobe

Primary Sensory Cortex

Recieves fibers conveying touch, proprioception, pain, tempurature sensations

Temproal Lobe

Wernicke's Area- Language Comprehension

Occipital Lobe

Primary Visual Cortex


Hidden by other regions of the cerebrum

Understanding language

Sense of taste

Sensory information from visceral receptors

Projection Tracts

Extends vertically between higher and lower brain and spinal cord centers

Carries information between cerebrum and rest of body

Commissural Tracts

Cross from on cerebral hemisphere through bridges called commissures

Association Tracts

Connect different regions within the same hemisphere

Limbic System

Important center of emotion and learning

Cingulate Gyrus- Arches over the top of Corpus Callosum

Hippocampus- In the medial temporal lobe, memory

Amygdala- Immediatly rostral to the hippocampus, emotion

Basal Ganglia

Regions of gray matter scattered throughout white matter of the cerebral hemispheres

Control eye movements

Gross autonomic movement

Muscle tone

Cerebral Cortex

Layer covering the surface of the hemispheres of the cerebrum

Central sulcus separates primary and motor areas

Cerebral Lateralization

The difference in structure and function of the cerebral hemispheres

Highly correlated with handedness

Left Hemisphere

Categorical Hemisphere

Sciences and language

Right Hemisphere

Representational Hemisphere

Imagination and insight

Comparison of sounds, sights

Electroencephlogram (EEG)

Monitors surface electrical activity of the brain waves

Brain Waves

Rhythmic voltage changes resulting from snychronized postsynaptic potentials at the superficial layer of the cerebral cortex

4 types distinquished by amplitude (mV) and frquency (Hz)

Alpha Waves

Frequency 8-13 Hz

Parieto-occiptal regions

Dominate EEG when person is awake or resting

Suppressed when eyes are open engaging in mental task

Beta Waves

Frequency 14 to 30 Hz

Front or parietal region

Stimulated during mental activity and sensory stimulation

Theta Waves

Frequency 4 to 7 Hz

Normal in children and in drowsy or sleeping adults

Predominance in theta waves in awake adults suggests emotional stress or brain disorders

Delta Waves

Frequency less than 3.5 Hz

Awake children and adults in a deep sleep

A predominance of delta waves in awake adults indicates serious brain damage