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84 Cards in this Set

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The intermolecular forces that occur between polar molecules is called?

dipole - dipole

Non-polar molecules do not have charged areas and are only capable of forming weak intermolecular forces called what?

London Dispersion Forces

What is the uneven sharing of electrons between 2 atoms in a covalent bond called?

Dipole

Difference between INTRAmolecular forces and INTERmolecular forces

INTRAmolecular: forces HOLDING atoms TOGETHER to form molecule.




INTERmolecule: forces BETWEEN molecules or atoms. (like interstate I-95)

Polar Molecule

Has slightly positive side and slightly negative side. (like north and south pole on earth)

Dipole-dipole force

when the positive side of a polar molecule attracts the negative side of another polar molecule.

Hydrogen bond

an attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen of one molecule and a slightly negative atom (N, O or F) on another molecule. (special case of dipole-dipole)

Which is the strongest intermolecular force?

Hydrogen bond

Which force is important in affecting the properties of water and biological molecules such as proteins?

Hydrogen bonds

What 4 physical properties do IMF effect?

Boiling Point


Melting Point


Evaporation


Solubility

When does a temporary (instantaneous) dipole form between nonpolar molecules?

When the electrons gather more on one end of the molecule than the other causing it to be slightly negative and the other end to be slightly positive. This can also cause neighbor molecules to become temp dipole.

London dispersion force

The weak intermolecular force that results from the motion of electrons that creates temporary dipoles in molecules.

Which is the weakest of the IMFs

London dispersion force

Which is the only force that works on noble gases and non-polar molecules?

London dispersion

London force _________as the size of the molecule increases.

Increases

London force increases as molar mass ________.

gets larger

Stronger IMF = ______ Vapor Pressure

Lower

Highest Vapor Pressure = ______ IMF

Weakest

Stronger IMF = _______ boiling point

Higher

______ IMF = Lower Boiling Point

Weaker

3 Properties of Acids

- pH values 0 - 7


- Taste and smell sour


- Turn pH paper pink, red or orange

3 Properties of Bases

- pH values greater than 7, up to 14


- Taste soapy and feel slippery


- turn pH paper green, blue or purple

_____ Acids and Bases dissociate (break apart) 100% in solution

Strong

Weak Acids and Bases dissociate ________ in solution

much less than 100%. Only a small fraction break apart into constituent ions

What does an acid do when put in water?

Breaks apart (dissociates)

Arrhenius Theory

Acid


Produces H3O+ (H+) in Sol'n




Base


Substance contains OH- and produces more OH- in water

Bronsted-Lowry Theory

Acid - Proton Donor




Base - Proton Acceptor

Conjugate Acid

An acid that forms when a base gains a proton

Conjugate Base

A Base that forms when an acid loses a proton

All arrhenius acids/bases are also _______ acids/bases

Bronsted-Lowry

What do Inter Molecular Forces determine?

Whether a substance is liquid, gas or solid.

Strength and attraction of Dipole-Dipole interaction depends on what?

Size and Polarity of Molecule

The ___ bond is very polar

O-H




(there are 2 lone pairs on O atom)

Vapor Pressure

The pressure exerted by the vapor when in equilibrium with its liquid.

Vapor pressures _______ with increasing temperatures

increase

The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the external pressure

Boiling point

Boiling point is effected by ____ and ____

IMF and Pressure

By adjusting the ____, a liquid can boil at any temperature.

pressure

Heat of vaporization

the amount of energy required to vaporize a mole of liquid at its boiling point.

Strong IMF have:


__ Heat of Vaporization


__ Boiling Points


__ Vapor Pressures

High Heat of Vaporization


High Boiling Points


Low Vapor Pressures

Surface tension

The energy required to increase the surface area of the liquid.

Surface tension is dependent on ______

the strength of IMF

Viscosity

The measure of the resistance to flow.

Viscosity depends on the strength of the ____ as well as the _____ of molecues

IMF


Size and Shape

For liquids, an increase in temperature will ____ the viscosity.

Decrease (i.e. warming honey)

High IMF = ___ Viscosity

High


(generally)

Does cold honey have high or low viscosity?

High

4 Properties of solids

- Molecule, atoms or ions locked in Crystal Lattice


- Particles CLOSE together


- Forces that hold particles depend on type of solid


- Highly ordered, rigid, incompressible, high densities.

4 Types of Crystalline Solids

Ionic


Molecular


Metallic


Network

Ionic Crystalline Solid (5 things about)

- Solids contain ionic compound.


- Bonding is ionic


- High MP


- Hard but brittle


- Conduct electricity when molten or in solution

Molecular Crystalline Solid (5 things)

- Solids have molecules or atoms arranged in regular pattern.


- Low MP


- Generally Insoluble in water


- Non-conductor of electricity


- Held by IMF

Metallic Crystalline Solid (3 things)

- Have metal atoms arranged in regular pattern


- properties of metals (malleable, ductile, conduct heat & electricity)


- Bonding called metallic bonding

Network Crystalline Solid (3 things)

- Solids held by covalent bonds.


- Typically High MP


- Hard but Brittle

Molecule that I think should be polar but is not

IMF's strongest to weakest

Hydrogen-Bonding (strongest)


Dipole-dipole


London (weakest)

Examples of Ionic Crystalline Solids

NaCl, K2SO4, CaCl, (NH4)3PO4

Examples of Metallic Crystalline Solids

Iron, Silver, Copper, others metals and alloys

Examples of Molecular Crystalline Solids

H2, O2, I2, H2O, CO2, Ch3OH

Examples of Network Crystalline Solids

Graphite, Diamond, Quartz, Feldspars, Mica

7 Strong Bases

All of the soluble Hydroxides:


LiOH


NaOH


KOH


CsOH


RbOH


Sr(OH)2


Ba(OH)2

7 Strong Acids

HCl


HBr


HI


HNO3


H2SO4


HClO4


HClO3

Acids react with bases to give _____ and react with certain metals to give ______.

- React with bases to give a salt and water.


- React with certain metals to give a salt and H2

Conjugate Acid Pair

Acid-Base pair that differ by ONLY 1 proton (H+)

Amphiprotic

can act as acid or base (i.e. water)

Acidic

pH < 7

Basic

pH > 7

pH formula

pH = -log[H3O+]

pOH formula

pOH = -log[OH-]

pH + pOH =

14

[H3O+] =

10 ^-ph

[OH-] =

10 ^-poh

Suspensions (3 things)

- Particle size is large, so some particles will settle and some stay suspended


- Have tyndall effect


- Easy to separate (filter)

Tyndall effect

When light is scattered (i.e. when beam of light shows dust in the air)

Colloidal Dispersion (4 things)

- small particles


- particles don't settle or filter


- can use centrifuge to separate


- have tyndall effect




(example - starch & water)

3 types of mixtures

Suspensions


Colloidal Dispersions


Solutions

Solutions (4 things)

- Particles very small <1 nm


- Particles don't settle or filter


- Homogenous mixture


- No Tyndall effect

______ in pressure increases solubility of a gaseous solute in a liquid.

Increase

Increase in temperature ________ solubility of a gaseous solute in a liquid.

decreases

The missibility of two liquids is determined by?

IMF




Need to have like forces to work.




Like dissolved like.

Non-Polar solutes will dissolve in what?

non-polar solvents




i.e. C10H8 will dissolve in CCl4 or C6H14

Polar solutes will dissolve in what?

polar solvents (i.e. water)

Ionic solutes will dissolve in what

very polar solvents (i.e. water) Not all ionic compounds are soluble in H2O - see solubility rules

Two examples of acidic anhydrides

CO2 and NO2

Any _____ compound with a lone pair, will act as a base.

Nitrogen. (i.e. NH3)