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23 Cards in this Set

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catalyst

a substance that increases the rate of reaction without being consumed in the overall reaction

reaction rate

the increase in molar concentration of product of a reaction per unit time or the decrease in molar concentration of reactant per unit time

rate law

an equation that relates the rate of a reaction to the concentrations of reactants (and catalysts) raised to various powers

rate constant

a proportionally constant in the relationship between rate and concentrations

reaction order

the exponent of the concentration of a given reactant species in the rate law, as determined expermientally

overall order of a reaction

the sum of the orders of the reactant species in the rate law

integrated rate law

a mathematical relationship between concentration and time

half-life

the time it takes for the reactant concentration to decrease to one-half of its initial value

collision theory

the theory that in order for reaction to occur, reactant molecules must collide with an energy greater than the minimum value and with proper orientation

activation energy

the minimum energy of collision required for two molecules to react

transition-state theory

a theory that explains the reaction resulting from the collision of two molecules in terms of an activated complex (transition state)

activated complex

an unstable grouping of atoms that can break up to form products

arrhenius equation

expresses the dependence of the rate constant on the temperature

elementary reaction

a single molecular event, such as a collision of molecules, resulting in a reaction

reaction mechanism

the set of elementary reactions whose overall effect is given by the net chemical equation

reaction intermediate

a species produced during a reaction that does not appear in the net equation because it reacts in a subsequent step in the mechanism

molecularity

the number of molecules on the reactant side of an elementary reaction

unimolecular reaction

an elementary reaction that involves one reactant molecule

bimolecular reaction

an elementary reaction that involves two reactant molecules

termolecular reaction

an elementary reaction that involves three reactant molecules

rate-determining step

the slowest step in a reaction mechanism

chemisorption

the binding of a sspecies to a surface by chemical bonding forces

substrate

the substance whose reaction an enzyme catalyzes