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35 Cards in this Set

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What three factors help a solid solute dissolve in a liquid solvent faster?

Heat it to increase kinetic energy in the mixture so there are more particle collisions.



Crush it to decrease the particle size, increasing the surface area and in effect it allows more solvent to come in to contact with the solute faster.



Stir it (agitation) to increase the motion in the container and allow fresh solvent to com into contact with undissolved solute.

What is the definition of a solution?

A thoroughly mixed homogeneous mixture of substances in a single phase.

What is the solvent?

A substance that does the dissolving and is present in the largest quantity.

What is the solute?

The substance the is dissolved and is present in the smallest quantity.

What is molarity (M)?

Molarity (M) is a unit for concentration and is found by dividing the number of moles of solute dissolved by the liters of solution it is dissolved in.

What information do you need to calculate the molarity of a solution?

moles of solute that you are dissolving and liters of solution that you are dissolving it in.

What is the formula to solve for a dilution.

M1V1=M2V2

What is the molarity of a solution where 1.4 moles are dissolved in 0.500 L of solvent?

M = mol/L



= 2.8 M

What is the volume of a 6.5 M solution which has 3.5 moles of solute dissolved in the solvent.

Liters = mol / M



= 0.538 L or 538 mL

How many moles of solute are dissolved in 1.25 L of solvent if the concentration is 4.0 M?

mol = M x Liters



5.0 moles solute

In a solution, which can you have many of?



a) solutes



b) solvents

a) solutes



you can have many different things dissolved in 1 solvent.



Examples: Coke, Iced Tea, metallic alloys

According to the solubility graph, how much KNO3 should you be able to dissolve in 200 g of water at a temperature of 20 C?
 

According to the solubility graph, how much KNO3 should you be able to dissolve in 200 g of water at a temperature of 20 C?


60 grams.



(you can dissolve 30 grams of KNO3 in 100 g of 20C water, so if you hvae 200 g of solvent, you can double what the graph shows.)

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved 55 grams KCl in 100 g of 60 C water?

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved 55 grams KCl in 100 g of 60 C water?

supersaturated
(above the line)

supersaturated


(above the line)

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved ~38 grams KCl in 100 g of 40C water?

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved ~38 grams KCl in 100 g of 40C water?

Saturated
(on the line)

Saturated


(on the line)

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved 45 grams KCl in 100 g of 8 C water?

What type of KCl solution could you make if you dissolved 45 grams KCl in 100 g of 8 C water?

Unsaturated 
(under the line)
 

Unsaturated


(under the line)


What type of solution can you not dissolve any more solute in the solvent at that given temperature.

saturated solution


(on the line)

What type of solution can you still dissolve more solute in the solvent at a given temperature?

unsaturated solution


(under the line)

What type of solution has more dissolved then possible at a given temperature?

supersaturated solution


(above the line)

If the super saturates solution of KCI was disturbed (red dot in the graph), how much KCl shoudl become a solid and settle at the bottom of the solution?

If the super saturates solution of KCI was disturbed (red dot in the graph), how much KCl shoudl become a solid and settle at the bottom of the solution?

About 5 grams would settle.



Hint: look how far above the line is at that temperature.

The majority of salts (ionic compounds) show what solubility trend as temperature increases?

Their solubility increases proven by the fact that they have a positive slope.

Gases show what solubility trend as temperature increases?

Their solubility decreases as temperature increases proven by their downward slope on a solubility curve.

Describe how you could dilute the following solution. 25 mL of 10 M HCl to 1.0 M.

M1V1=M2V2



V2 = 250 mL



Start by measuring the V1 amount of the M1 solution (25 mL of 10 M HCl). Add 225 mL of water until the total volume was the V2 (250 mL).

How is an alloy a solution?

An alloy is a homogeneous mixture of two or more metals in the same phase (solid).



For Example: Brass is an alloy made from a mixture of zinc & copper. You must heat the metals until they are molten (liquid) then mix them together, then allow them to cool in the shape that you want them in.

An alloy such as brass is an example of which solute-solvent combination?

solid-solid

Salt water is an example of what solute-solvent combination?

solid-liquid

carbon dioxide dissolved in cola (water) is an example of what type of solute-solvent combination?

gas-liquid

Squeezing lemon juice into tea is an example of which solute-solvent combination?

liquid-liquid

What is the term for a solution that can conduct electric current?

electrolyte

What is the term for a solution that cannot conduct electric current?

a nonelectrolyte

What is the term for two liquids that do not mix together well, such as oil and water?

immiscible

What is the term for two or more liquids that do mix well together?

miscible

What does the saying "like dissolves like" refer to?

polarity



polar molecules (such as water) dissolve other polar molecules. Nonpolar molecules dissolve other non polar molecules.



polar and nonpolar molecules would not mix well and may be immiscible.

Why is water so good at dissolving ionic compounds?

Because water molecules are polar and so are ionic compounds.

What term represents the amount of a substance in a solution?

Concentration.

What videos should I watch or review my notes from?

12.1 - Introduction to Solutions


12.2 - Solubility Curves


12.3 - Concentration (M)


12.4 - Dilutions


12.5 - Water