Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Anecdotal observation

Based on just one or a few observations people conclude that there is not a link between two things


Individuals make sign scientific sounding claims that are not supported by trustworthy methodical scientific

Independent variable

Entity that can be observed and measured at the start of a process and whose value can be changed as required

Dependent variable

Is one that can also be observed and measured by whose response is created by the process being observed and depends on the independent variable

Placebo effect

The frequently observed poorly understood phenomenon in which people respond favorably to any treatment

Scientific literacy

A general fact-based understanding of the basics of biology and other Sciences is increasingly important in our lives and literacy in matters of biology is essential

Blind experimental design

A blind—or blinded—experimentis an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known. It is understood that bias may be intentional or unconscious, thus no dishonesty is implied by blinding.

Control group

The control group is defined as the group in an experiment or study that does not receive treatment by the researchers and is then used as a benchmark to measure how the other tested subjects do.

Critical experiment

experiment capable of decisively determining whether or not a particular hypothesis or theory is superior to all other hypotheses or theories whose acceptance is currently widespread in the scientific community.

Double-blind experimental design

double blind experiment. A testing procedure, designed to eliminate biased results, in which the identity of those receiving a test treatment is concealed from both administrators and subjects until after the study is completed.

Empirical experimental group

In the scientific method, anexperiment is an empiricalprocedure that arbitrates competing models or hypotheses. ... An experimentmust also control the possible confounding factors—any factors that would mar the accuracy or repeatability of theexperiment or the ability to interpret the results.


a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.

Null hypothesis

(in a statistical test) the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between specified populations, any observed difference being due to sampling or experimental error.

Positive correlation

Positive correlation is arelationship between two variables in which both variables move in tandem. A positive correlation exists when one variable decreases as the other variable decreases, or one variable increases while the other increases.


In science, randomizedexperiments are the experiments that allow the greatest reliability and validity of statistical estimates of treatment effects.Randomization-based inference is especially important in experimental design and in survey sampling.


the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study of the structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment

Scientific literacy

Scientific literacy is the knowledge and understanding of scientific concepts and processes required for personal decision making, participation in civic and cultural affairs, and economic productivity. It also includes specific types of abilities.

Scientific method

1. Make observations

2. Formulate a hypothesis

3.devise a testable predicition

4. Conduct experiment

5. Draw conclusions, make revisions


A set of analytical and mathematical tools designed to help researchers gain understanding from the data they gather


The irrational belief that actions are circumstances that are not logically related to a course of events can influence its outcome is called superstition


An explanatory hypothesis for natural phenomena that is exceptionally well supported by the empirical data


An experimental condition applied to the research subjects


The characteristics of an experimental system that are subject to change