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41 Cards in this Set

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Ball Clay

A fine secondary clay added to a clay body for plasticity.

Banding Wheel

A free standing wheel that is turned by hand and used for decorating.

Batch

Refers to materials weighed out for a recipe for glazes or clays.

Bisque

Clay that has been fired once, but is still porous and ready for glaze.

Bisque Firing

The first firing clay goes through to harden it. Cone 6 and usually around 1850°F.

Body (Clay Body)

A recipe of materials formulated to create workable clay.

Bentonite

A highly plastic clay from volcanic origins used to aid in clay plasticity and to keep glazes in suspension.

Ceramic

Once clay has reached 1112°F it will no longer disintegrate in water to become workable. It is now ceramic.

Clay

A hydrated silicate of aluminum. Also, earth that holds it's shape and can be fired.

Crawling

When glaze separates and rolls back on itself to expose the clay. It can happen when there is dust or grease on the clay, too thick an application of glaze, or when the glaze has a high clay content.

Earthenware

A low fire clay body that includes terracotta.

Feldspar

Minerals used in glazes as a flux.

Flux

Any material that lowers the melting point of another material.

Glaze

Essentially a thin coating of glass that is adhered to a clay body.

Glaze Firing

Second firing after bisque firing used to melt glaze that is applied to bisque clay.

Greenware

Unfired clay.

Highfire

Firing to the higher end of the firing scale (usually higher than cone 6).

Kaolin (China Clay)

A very pure, white primary clay that is the main ingredient in porcelain.

Kiln

A device used to fire ceramics and to reserve heat.

Leatherhard

Clay that is still moist but has lost all plasticity.

Lowfire

Firing to the lower end of the firing scale (usually below cone 01).

Maturing Point

The point in which a clay or glaze has reached it's ideal point of strength and compactness without becoming to brittle and glassy.

Oxidation

To fire with ample oxygen intake in the kiln.

Oxide

Heavy metals that are used as colorants in glazes and clays.

Plasticity

When clay can be formed easily without cracking and will hold it's shape.

Porcelain

A pure, white clay body usually used for pottery and tableware.

Primary Clay

A clay found at or near it's source.

Pyrometer

A special high temperature thermometer used to tell temperatures inside the kiln.

Pyrometric Cones

Small pyramid shaped objects that are formulated from ceramic materials to melt at precise temperatures. Used to tell temperatures in the kiln during firing.

Luster

A very thin coating of metal (usually gold or silver) that is painted and then fired onto a ceramic object for decoration.

Reduction

To reduce the oxygen flow into a kiln in order to produce a volatile atmosphere.

Resist (wax resist)

Using wax or another material (like tape) as a barrier to prevent glaze from sticking.

Secondary Clay

A clay found far from its source that usually contains impurities (ball clay).

Short

The term we use in ceramics when clay is not plastic, has little flexibility, and cracks easily. This is usually due to dry clay or very young clay.

Silica

The glass former in clay and glazes, it is also the most abundant mineral in the world.

Slip

Watered down clay used to join two pieces of clay together (slip and score).

Stoneware

A highfire clay body usually used in throwing.

Terracotta

A red, low fire clay that is considered an earthenware.

Vitreous

The stage where a clay body is taken to its hottest point without deforming and turned glassy and non-porous.

Warping

When clay changes from it's desired shape during drying or firing.

Wedging

Kneading clay by hand to remove air pockets and make clay uniform.