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48 Cards in this Set

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Which of the organelles contain a phospholipid bilayer (1. cell membrane, 2. cell wall, 3. chromatin, 4. mitochondria, 5. chloroplast)
cell membrane, chloroplasts, mitochondria
The plasma membrane is permeable to which of the molecules above (ions such as Na+, Large molecules such as glucose, Small molecules such as 02, Water)
Small molecules such as O2 and Water
A child dies following a series of bacterial infections. At the autopsy, the physicians are startled to see that the child's white blood cells are loaded with vacuoles containing intact bacteria. Which of the following explanations could account for this finding:
A) A defect in the Golgi apparatus prevented the cells from processing and excreting the bacteria.
B) A defect in the mitochondria did not allow the cell to make enough energy to destroy the bacteria.
C) A defect in the cell membrane of the white blood cells permitted bacteria to enter the cells
D) A defect in the lysosomes of the white blood cells prevented the cells from destroyed the engulfed bacteria
D
Stomach cells produce a large amount of enzymes to digest food. What orgaelle do stomach cells have to perform their job
ribosomes
The cells that produce hair contain a lot of __, while cells that produce the oils that coat hair contain a lot of ___.: rough endoplasmic reticulum...smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following statements regarding plasmodesmata is false (plasmodesmata penetrate plant cell walls, plasmodesmata carry nutrients between plant cells, plasmodesmata carry chemical messages between plant cells, plasmodesmata are commonly found in prokaryotes)
plasmodesmata are commonly found in prokaryotes
Animal sperm must be motile and move to the egg to fertilize it. What organelle do sperm have to make them motile
flagella
Plants have the ability to capture the sunlight and convert it into usable energy and food. What organelle do plants have that give them the ability to make food
chloroplasts
Pancreatic cells produce the hormone insulin. After the protein-based hormone is made, it is transported throughout the cell and eventually expelled into the environment through vesicles. What organelles do pancreatic cells have to perform their job
golgi body and rough ER
When muscle cells divide, they do not form separate cells, but are just one big continuous cell with a lot of nuclei. If a muscle cell has a lot of nuclei, what else does it ave a lot of
DNA
Each of the following statements is true about bulk transport in cells EXCEPT (endocytosis brings materials into a cell by forming inward folds of the cell membrane, exocytosis is accomplished by placing material in a vesicle which fuses with the cell membrane and expels its contents, phagocytosis can bring large amounts of substances into the cell through protein channels or vesicles)
phagocytosis can bring large amounts of substances into the cell through protein channels or vesicles
Which of the structures above are not made of proteins (centrioles, cilia, flagella, cytoskeleton)
none of the above
A plant cell has a 4% salt concentration. Which of the solutions below should the plant be watered with to keep a high turgor pressure (10% salt solution, 1% salt solution, 4% salt solution, 15% salt solution)
1% salt solution
Termed the phrase "cells" after looking at cork under a microscope
Hooke
A zoologist and a botanist that determined that animals and plants were made of cells: Schleiden and Schwann
Some protists have special organelles called contractile vacuoles that continually eliminate excess water from the cell. The presence of these organelles tells you that the environment
is hypotonic to the protist
Which process could result in the net movement of a substance into a cell, if the substance is more concentrated in the cell than in the surroundings
active transport
What is the term for a water loving head of a phospholipid
hydrophilic
What is the term for the water hating tail
hydrophobic
What type of protein is molecule D
peripheral protein
What type of cell transport is channel protein involved in
facilitated diffusion
______ _______ ____ describes the makeup of the cell membrane because it is flexible and made of different molecules.
Fluid mosaic model
Define pinocytosis
The ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of small vesicles from the cell membrane.
Define exocytosis
durable process by which a cell directs the contents of secretory vesicles out of the cell membrane and into the extracellular space
Define phagocytosis
the ingestion of liquid into a cell by the budding of large vesicles from the cell membrane
Define facilitated diffusion
a process of passive transport (as opposed to active transport), with this passive transport aided by integral membrane proteins
Define osmosis
diffusion of water
Define diffusion
process where substances are transported from one area to another without using energy
Define active transport
The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy.
A white blood cell engulfs a bacteria, destroys it and then expels its waste. What two types of cell transport did the white blood cell just use - be specific
phagocytosis and exocytosis
Define lysis
occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to move into the cell
Define crenation
process resulting from osmosis in which red blood cells, in a hypertonic solution, undergo shrinkage and acquire a notched or scalloped surface.
Define nucleus and functions
membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction
Define cell wall and functions
cell wall is made up mostly of cellulose, determines tissue texture, and often is crucial to cell function
Define cell membrane and functions
cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosing its contents, its function is to protect the cell from molecules that want to come within the cell
Define nucleolus and functions
a non-membrane bound structure composed of proteins and nucleic acids found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Its function is to transcribe ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and assemble it within the cell
Define chloroplasts and functions
They are the green organelles found only inside plant cells that provide the color and enable it to absorb sunlight for photosynthesis.
Define ribosomes and functions
Ribosomes are used by the cells, in RNA translation, for protein synthesis.
Define rough ER and functions
A membrane network within the cytoplasm of cells involved in the synthesis, modification, and transport of cellular materials.
Define mitochondria and functions
The main function of the mitochondrion is the production of energy
Define cilia and functions
minute hairlike organelles, identical in structure to flagella, that line the surfaces of certain cells and beat in rhythmic waves, providing locomotion to ciliate protozoans and moving liquids along internal epithelial tissue in animals.
Define smooth ER and functions
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum packages proteins for transport, synthesizes membrane phosolipids, and releases calcium. Other functions of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum include transformation of bile pigments, glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), and detoxification of many drugs and chemical agents
Define chromatin and functions
the DNA
Define golgi body and functions
an organelle, consisting of layers of flattened sacs, that takes up and processes secretory and synthetic products from the endoplasmic reticulum and then either releases the finished products into various parts of the cell cytoplasm or secretes them to the outside of the cell.
Define lysosomes and functions
Trashcan of cell
Define cytoplasm and functions
the gel-like matrix in which organelles are situated within a cell
Define eukaryote
A single-celled or multicellular organism whose cells contain a distinct membrane-bound nucleus.
Define prokaryote
An organism of the kingdom Monera (or Prokaryotae), comprising the bacteria and cyanobacteria, characterized by the absence of a distinct, membrane-bound nucleus or membrane-bound organelles, and by DNA that is not organized into chromosomes. Also called moneran.
Define cytoskeleton and functions
gives cell shape
Define microtubule and microfilaments
make up the cytoskeleton