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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Complete mammalian dental arrangement

upper: 3 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars, 3 molars

lower: 3 incisors, 1 canine, 4 premolars, 3 molars

total: 44 teeth

Dental Formulae for complete mammalian arrangement



Teeth: Clinical Crown

The part of the tooth covered in enamel that protrudes from the gum line

Teeth: Anatomic Crown

The part of of the tooth covered in enamel, including the section below the gum line.

Teeth: Neck

Junction between the crown and root

Teeth: Root

Anchors the tooth and is covered in cement

Teeth: vestibular surface

Faces outwards toward the cheek

Teeth: lingual surface

Faces inwards toward the tongue

Teeth: occlusal surface

The biting or wearing surface

Teeth: rostral (mesial) surface

The front of the tooth, part of the tooth that faces the midline

Teeth: caudal (distal) surface

The back of the tooth, part of the tooth facing away from the midline

Structural component of the simple tooth



Pulp Cavity


Teeth: Enamel

Hard, highly calcified surface covering tooth

Can not repair itself or continue to grow once fully formed

Function: protection

Teeth: Dentine

Calcified, collagen rich matrix (similar to bone)

Forms the bulk of the tooth

Contains odontoblasts

Teeth: cement

Collagen fibres that anchor tooth in socket

Resistant to pressure erosion

Teeth: Pulp Cavity

Located in center of tooth

Narrows with age

Highly vascular and contains a large amount of lymphatic tissue

Contains nerves-all stimuli perceived as pain

Teeth: Apical Foramen

Buried in the deepest part of the jaw

Where nerves and vessels enter/exit the pulp cavity

Teeth: Odontoblast

Forms dentine

Located on the outer surface of the pulp cavity

Deposit organic dentine which calicifies and leaves behind dentine tubules

Periodontal Structures

Gingivae (gums)

Periodontal Ligament

Alveolar bone of jaw

Gingivae (gums)

Attaches teeth to gingival sulcus

Gingival Sulcus

Crevice between tooth and gingivae

Deepens in periodontal disease

Contains saliva that protects against bacterial penetration

Periodontal Ligament

Collagen fibres that connect cement to alveolar bone (holds tooth in place)

Strong attachment in healthy tooth

Can be eaten away by bacteria in severe periodontal disease

Periodontal Disease

Bacteria eat away at periodontal ligament

Gingival sulcus deepens

Bacterial infiltration causes redness and inflammation

Teeth: Alveolus

The tooth socket

Separate alveolus for each tooth

Lies within the trabecular bone


Teeth that sit in sockets

Term applies to most mammals

Lamina Dura

Thin layer of dense bone that lines alveolus

Arterial supply for mandibular teeth

Inferior alveolar from maxillary artery

Enters mandibular foramen, lies in mandibular canal, exits mental foramen

Arterial supply for maxillary teeth

Branch from maxillary artery

Runs through maxillary bone

Nervous supply for mandibular teeth

Inferior alveolar nerve which branches from mandibular nerve (V)

Mandibular nerve (V)

Provides nervous supply to mandibular teeth

Provides motor function to muscles of mastication

Nervous supply for maxillary teeth

Infraorbital nerve which branches from maxillary nerve (V)


Variation in tooth structure


2 sets of teeth

Present in all mammalian species

Deciduous teeth

Milk or temporary teeth

No molars

Teeth erupt before root is formed

Permanent tooth eruption is caused by:

Root growth

Bone growth

Pulpal proliferation

Tissue Pressure

Periodontal traction

Process by which permanent teeth erupt

Permanent tooth rises into alveolus of temporary tooth

Pressure erosion of temporary tooth root

Temporary tooth loosens and falls out

Permanent tooth grows into vacated space

Dentition of the dog (Temporary)



Canine temporary teeth

Finer and sharper than permanent teeth

Similar in shape to permanent teeth

PM2, PM3, PM4, missing PM1

Dentition of dog (permanent)



Canine teeth appear at:

~3-4 weeks

Canine: full temporary dentition present at:

~6 weeks

Canine: adult teeth appear at:

~3 month

Canine: full adult dentition present at:

~6 months

Canine: Incisor teeth

Small, single root

Fairly loosely attached

Used in grooming

Upper-3 cusps, Lower-2 cusps

Canine: canine teeth

Large and curved, single root

Root larger than crown

Strong attachment

Used for fighting & gripping prey

Canine: premolar teeth

Increase in size (PM1-PM4)

Each has 3 cusps

-large central, smaller mesial and distal

Roots are rostrocaudally aligned

Canine: PM1

Premolar 1 has a single root

Canine: PM2 & PM3

Premolar 2 and premolar 3 have double root

Canine: PM4

Premolar 4 has three roots

-small medial part

Acts as a shearing surface with M1 (carnassial)

Extracting teeth with multiple roots

Tooth must be split into sections and each root section removed individually

Canine: Molars

Decrease in size (M1-M2 in upper jaw, M1-M3 in lower jaw)

Lower M1 is the largest molar

Flatter crowns than premolars

Used for crushing

Canine: Upper molars

Three roots & three cusps

Transverse orientation

Canine: lower molars

Two roots

Rostrocaudal orientation

Canine: Teeth occlusion

Lower teeth generally lie medial to upper teeth when mouth is closed

Upper PM4 lies lateral to lower M1

Lower canines lie rostral (in front of) to upper canines

Dentition of the cat (temporary)



Dentition of the cat (permanent)



Differences between dentition of cat and dog

Cats lack upper PM1 & M2

Cats lack lower PM1, PM2, M2 & M3

In cats, only upper PM4 has 3 roots

Feline: teeth appear at:

~3 weeks

Feline: full temporary dentition present at:

~6 weeks

Feline: adult teeth appear at:

~3.5 months

Feline: full adult dentition present at:

~6 months