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371 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
main trunk of series of vessels convey oxygenated blood to tissues of body for nutrition
inferior vena cava
large vein ascending through abdomen enters heart
left atrium
upper right chamber of heart receieves oxygenated blood from lungs and pumps it to left ventricle then to body
left ventricle
left lower chanber of heart receives blood from left atruim pumps it under high pressure through aorta to body
mitral valve
valve in heart situated between left atruim and left ventricle permits blood to flow from left atruim into left ventricle but not vice versa
pulmonary artery
one of two vessels formed as terminal branches of pulmonary trunk convey unaerated blood to lungs
pulmonary vein
one of 4 vessels carry aerated blood from lungs to left atruim of heart only veins carry bright red oxygenated blood
pulmonary valve
one of 4 valves in heart pulmonary valve stands at opening from right ventricle in pulmonary artery trunk lets blood head to lungs keeps it from coming back into heart
right atrium
right upper chamber of heart receives deoxygenated blood from body throuogh vena cava pumps it to right ventricle
right ventricle
lower right chamber of heart receives deoxygenated blood from right atrium and pumps it low pressure into lungs via pulmonary artery
dividing wall between right and left sides of heart
superior vena cava
large vein returns blood to heart from head neck and both upper limbs inferior vc returns blood to heart from lower part of body
tricuspid valve
one of four heart valves first one blood encounters enters heart betwwn right atruim and right ventricle allows blood from from atruim into ventricle
physician specializes in heart and vascular diseases
pediatiric cardiologist
specialist in heart and circulatory diseases in growing and developing individual
interventional cardiologist
special training in ednovascular treatment procedures inside the vessels
what is the most common procedure an interventional cardiologist performs
PTCA percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
what is PTCA
balloon angioplasty of coronary arteries using a catheter fitted with small balloon used to relieve a blockage in coronary artery
what do they use now stents small thin tubular meshes support coronary artery and prolong its state of openness
experts on heart's electrical functions skilled cardiologists specific training diagnose treat cardiac arrhythmias
specializes in operations of heart lungs and chest competence coronary artery bypass surgery valve replacemnent and/or repair heart transplants
cardio-thoracic surgeon
vascular surgeons
treatment of arterial diseases conjunction with blood vessels of body arterial diseases of thoracic and abdomial aorta greater aorta smaller arteries femoral arteries on upper and lower leg also treat venous stystem varicose veins most frequent venous vasular intervention
nuclear medicene specialist
combo medicine and science knowledgeable in physics computing chemistry pharmacy
crucial during heart surgery
dudring heart surgery heart is stopped and
blood is diverted from heart and lungs to a machine acting as replacement for those vitalorgans
perfusionist is responsible for
running the machine during the operation observation of altered circulation assisting role other types of surgery blood conservation and blood products
describing patient's mood and state of mind
affect ****
follow up is used as a
noun ****
spedcialist treatment of arterial diseases blood vessels
vascular surgeon ****
cursical during heart surgery running blood diverting epiqipment during op observation of altered circulation
perfusionist *****
action of vagus nerve on blood vessels fainting *****
hollow muscular organ size of fist located behind sternum above diaphragm between lungs
what does the heart do
maintains circulation supplying oxygen-rich blood to all part of body
pericardium ****
fluid filled sac
where is pericardium
surrounds heart attached to sternum diaphragm major blood vessels
what are major blood vessels
aorta vena cavae
how many layers of heart wall
what are they
describe epicardium ***
outer layer protects heart
myocardium ***
muscular middle layer cardiac muscle for heart contracion
endocardium ***
inner layer covers heart valves
purkinje fibers ***
used in heart contraction
what is the right and left side of the heart seperated
each side has two what
chambers atrium and ventricle
upper atria are
blood-receiving chambers
lower ventricles are
blood-pumping chambers
carry blood to heart
carry blood away from heart
right atrium
recesives de-oxygeneated blood returning from body
vena cavae
two largest veins in body empty returning blood into right atruim
superior vena cava
breings blood from head neck and upper chest regions empties into right atruim
inferior vena cava
brings blood from lower body regions and empties into right atruim
right vientricle receives
de-oxygenated blood from right atrium PUMPS blood through pulmonary artery to lungs where blood absorbs oxygen
pulmonary veins
transport this now oxygen-righ blood from lungs sto left atruim
left ventricle
receives oxygen-rich blood from left atruim and PUMPS blood out through aorta
aorta largest
artey in body
distributes blood to all other arteries except pulmonary artery these arteries carry blood to all body regions
heart valves
strategically located keep blood fowing in one direction
atrioventricular valves
tricuspid valve
mitral valve(bicuspid valve)
tricuspid valve
between right atrium and right ventricle
mitral valve bicuspid valve
betwiin left atrium left ventricle
semilunar valves
aortic valve pulmonary valve
aortic valve
betwiin left ventricle and aorta
pulmonary valve
between right ventricle and piulmonary artery
how do valves open and close
pressure changes within heart chambers
contraction and relaxation of heart chambers controlled by
cardiac conduction system
tricuspid valve
pulmonary valve
mitral valve
aortic valve
aortic valve is
semi-lunar valve
root of aorta
receives oxygenated blood from
left ventricle
to be pumped where
rest of body
what is attached to aortic root
fibrous cusps
the small space between attachments of each cusp called
cardiac conduction
electrical impulses generated by nodal tissue travel through heart wall causing myocardium to contract heart chambers in coordinated fashion
sinoatrial node SA
lies in upper right atrium fires electrical impulse travels through wall of atria signaling both atria to contract and push blood into ventricles
impulse travels to atrioventricular node AV
lies between atria and ventricdles AV node initially holds impulse for fraction of secdond allowing both atria to relax
then sends impulse down the atrioventricular bundle Bundle of His
branches into Purkinje fibers at bottom of ventricles
Purkinje fibers
sisgnal both ventricles to contwract and push blood out to olungs and to rest of body
cardiac cycle
events that occur when heart beats
heart beats about
60-=80 times per minute
hormones body temp exercise influence
rate heart beats
normal heart beat
atria contract at the same time that ventricles relax
sinus rhythm
sequence of contraction and relaxation of heart chambers
contracion of chambers
relaxation of chambers
single heart beat consists
one systole one diastole of atria
one systole and one diastole of ventricles
atrioventricular node
sinoatrial nod
cardiac conduction
sinoatrial node
atrioventricular node
atrioventricular bundle
Purkinje fibers ********
vascular system
network of arteries veins and capillaries spread out from heart
what is distributed by blood
nitrients oxygen
what is removed by blood
waste matierial
blood vessels
circulate blood through body move blood in out of body tissues
3 categories blood vessels
microscopic tubes form network beds throughout body connect with arterioles and venules
smallest arteries
smallest veins
walls of capillaries
one-cell thick allows nutrients oxygen traveling in arteries pass through capillary walls and into body tissues
waste material and carbon dioxide
absorbed from body tissues into capillaries carried into veins for return to heart
return dolygenated blood to heart except pulmonary veins
pulmonary veins
carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
deo.ygenated blood and wasste material
into capillaries rfirst then into venules
feed into larger veins merge into vena cavae
vena cava
direct blood back into heart
walls of veins 3 layers
layers thin collapse when empty
most veins contain
valves keep blood from flowing backward
valves most numerous sin
veins of extremities
many veins pass through
intenal organs where blood is cleaned before it realches heart
filter out nitrogenous wastes
removes old red blood cells
receives all veins from intestines and stomach
detoxifies blood before vena cavae returns it to heart for reocygenation
move blood away from heart except for pumonary arteries
pulmonary arteries
carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
arteries carry oxygentated blood from heart out
through aorta
branches divides sinto many other arteries subdivide into arterioles terminate in capillaries throughout body tissues
walls of arteries have 3 layers
tough elastic outer coat
layer of muscular tissue
thin inner coat
arterial walls expand and contract with
each heartbeat pumping blood throughout body
movement of pulsating blood
can be felt
where large arteries are near surface of body
unlike veins arteries have
elastic in outer coat of walls ***
kidneys spleen and _____ clean blood before returned to heart
feeling tired***
smalleset arteries
the____ return blood to heart for reoxygenation
vena cavae***
1 tab qid prn #30 means
one tablet four times a day as needed - 30 pills***
_____return deoxygentated blood to heart
_____carry blood away from heart
smallest veins called
blood vessssels together with heart pumps blood comprise circulatory system
divided 3 parts
pulmonary circ
coronary circ
systemic circ
pulmonary circ
movement of blood to and from lungs
blood fows from right atrium into right ventricle contracts force blood into lungs through pumlonary arteries**
oxygenated blood returns to hear via pulmonary veins**
pumnonary circ arteries carry deoxygenated blood veins carry oxygen-rich blood

opposite**of normal circ where arteries carry oxygen-rich blood and veins carry deoxygenated blood
coronary circulation
movement of blood frrom heart chambers to heart tissues
aorta rises from left ventricle two opening emerge lead to two coronary arteries** supply blood to heart itself

coronary arteries arise within heart pass directly out to surface of heart extend down across it suppply blood to network of capillaries penetrate every portion of heart
capillaries part of coronary circ drain
into two coronary veins*** empty into right atruim
systemic circulation
movement of blood to every part of body not covered by pulmonary and coronary circ

arteries extedn from aorta to form branches and sub-branches carry oxygen-rich blood to body aorta divided into sections according to location
ascending aorta
ascends from left ventricle sits above heart
aortic arch
continuation of ascending aorta bends sharply and starts to descend
descending aorta
continuation of aortic arch
descends through two regions
2 regions of descending aorta
thoracic aorta
abdominasl aorta
throacic aorta
descending aorta in chest region
abdominal aorta
descending aorta in abdomen region
veins throughout body return deoxygenated blood to heart through tow main veins empty directly into heart
superior vena cava
inferior vena cava
coronary circ movement from heart
arteries exted and branch from
blood vessels involved in pulmonary circ are ___arteries and coronary circ
the___aorta is located in chest and abdomen regions
pulmonary circ____
veins carry oxygen-rich blood
carry doxygenated blood***
pulmonary circ movement of blood to and from the
network of ____penetrates every portion of heart
Venous blood returning to heart enters sthrough superior and inferior___cavae
_____circ is movement of blood to every part of body not covered by pulmonary and coronary circ
blood vessels involved in pulmonary circ are the ___arteries and coronary veins
history and physical examination by practitioner is foundation of
patient's workup
exam followed by
variety of tests including blood studies radiographs electrocardiography echocardiography invasive methods heart catheterization coronary arteriography
importance in patient's historoy is
presence of cardiac disease within immediate family parents granparents
equal importance previous
cardiac problems or various risk factors for heart disease
these risk factors include
hypertension rheumatic fever metabolic disorders smoking lipid disorders
history and physical exam includes
list of current medications list symptoms dyspnea shortness of breath tachpnea rapid breathing any breathing problem
physical exam reveal l signs
cyanosis of nail beds lips skin pallor daphoresis cervical jugular venous distention
what may be palpated
abnormal chest wall movement
auscultation with stethoscope reveal
murmurs clicks rubs gallops bruits
crackling sounds
rales at lung bases signifies
fluid in air sacs congestive heart failure
retinal exam reveal
optic fundus mimic effect of blood vessel diswease A-V nicking widened luminous reflex tortuosity of arterioles hemorrahages or exudates
physician check heart rate and rhythm normal rhythm
normal sinus rhythm
slow pulse
fast pulse
physicisan note ___made as heart pumps blood through many valves in heart
first and second heart sounds
S1 S2
S1 S2 refer to
closing of mitral and tricuspid valves then aortic and pulmonary valves
sometimes S3 may be
abnormal sounds
S4 murmur gallop or rub
murmurs can be
systolic or diastolic described according to loudness on grading scale of 1-6 also where murmer is best heard
some sounds physician may hear listening to cdhest
blowing bruits crescendo decrescendo diastole ejection click gallops grades1,2,3,4 murmur holsystolic midsystolic musical murmurs opeing snap pansystolic paradocic or fixed plitting ofS2 attenuated A2 fixed S2 pulmonary souds P1,P2 rasping rumbling systolic click thrills
physician monitor patient's
blood pressure
blood pressure dictated as
one number over another BP: 116/82
physician exam extremities for
piulses of arteries of feet dorsalis pedis femoral arteris of groin posterior tibial means lower extremity blood flow
upper extremities
brachial radial and ulnar arteries are peripheral vessels
the ___may be felt pulsations sometimes are visualizsed in neck
carotid pulses
some things a physician might notice on extremity blood flow
clubbing cyanosis erythema pitting edema positive Homan's sign pretibial edema pulses doralis pedis femoral popliteal posterior tibial radial ulnar and spooning of nails for few ex.
calculated ratio between weight and height correlates with body fat
hight BMI greater
risk develp additonal health problems BMI can be too low too
structures of Heart
foramen ovales
oval opening between the two upper chambers of heart atria
Homan's sign
indicator deep venous thrombosis
maximal impulse
PMI point on chest where imnpulse of left vewntricle is felt most stronly ***
heart murmurs graded on scale of
1-6 ***
another name for point of maximal impuse
PMI ***
first and second heart sounds
S1 S2 ***
another name for normal pulse is normal___rhythm
sinus ***
most common heart diseasew in western world
Coronary artery disease CAD
disorder of coronary arteries
disorder of coronary arteries supply myocardium heart muscle with blood
cholesterl building up in vascular wall of coronary arteries
if blood blow is restricted through atheroscleosis patients develp
ischemic heart disease
common causes of coronary artery disease
stress smoking fat-rich diet obesity high blood pressure diabetes
other causes of CAD
genetic factors present in families
as disease progresses blood fow to heart muscle
further reduced patient suffer from chest pains
chest pains called
what happens when angina very painful and narrowing of arteries becomes severe
blood flow is almost completely blocked heart attack may occur
serious disease heart muscle becomes inflamed therefore dysfunctional
have multiple causes including viral infections
3 pricipal types cardiomyopathy
dilated congesstive
inflammation of heart
card=heart itis=inflammation
inflammation of the inner layer of heart
endo within
bacterial endocardits
inflammation of inner layer of heart due to bacterial invasion
inflammation of cardiac muscle(myocardium) myo muscle card heart itis inflammation
inflammation of pericardium sac surroungs and protects heart

seen with viral infections
common complication myocardial infarction postmyocardial infarction syndrome Dressler's syndrome
post cadiotomy syndrome and chronic renal failure

peri surrounding card heart itis inflammation
rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease
acute rheumatic fever systemic inflammatory disease of childhood

rheumatic heart disease complication of rheumatic fever
Janeway lesions
Janeway lesions seen in people acute bacterial endocarditis flat painless red to bluish-red spots palms and soles
heart valve disorders
most common form of congenital congenital aortic valve diseases
congenital aortic valve disease
bicuspid aortic valve atrial and ventricular septal defects patent ductus arteriosus
sess common more complex forms valve disorders
tetralogy of Fallot
endocardial cushion defects persistent truncus arteriosis tricuspid atresia Ebstein's anomaly of tricuspid valve
Valvular heart disease
valve has leakage insufficiency or is tight stenotic obstruction of flow another disorder
mitral stenosis
common complication rheumatic heart disease
mitral insufficiency
seen with mitral valve prolapse severe cardiomyopathies coronary heart disease rheumatic heart disease
infective endocarditis
cause disruption deformity perforation of any cardiac valves
heart divided
4 chambers
upper chambers
lower chambers
heart muscle squeezes
blood from chamber to chamber
each squeeze
valves open let blood through to next chamber
valves close
stop blood moving backward
valves keep blood moving
efficiently through heart out to body
heart valve problems
valve disease occurs when valve doesn't work way it should
if valve doesn't open all the way
less blood move through smaller opening
If valve doesn't close tightly
blood mapy leak backward
these problems mean
heart works harder pump same amount blood
blood may back up in lungs or body not moving efficiently through heart
problems opening
valve may become hardened or stiff with calcium deposits or scarring hard to push open blood flows through smaller opening less blood gets through valve into next chamber
problems closing

when valve doesn't close tightly valve's supportive structures loose or torn valve stretched or thinned blood may leak back in wrong direction through valve
aortic insufficiency
heart valve disease aortic valve does not close tightly
aortic stenosis
narrowing or obstruction of heart's aortic valve
heart murmur
any sound of abnormal flow of blood in heart abnormal valves
mitral insufficiency
mitral regurgitation
abnortmal or incomplete closure of mitral valve causes blood flow backwards
mitral stenowis
narrowing of mitral valve by vavular abnormaalities sfibrosis or calcification
mitral valve prolapse
MVP porlapse=falling down
abnormal closure of mitral valve with one or more leaflets proturding into left atrium
pulmonic valve stenosis
condition usually present at birth congenital
outflow of blood from right ventricle lower chamber of heart is obstructed at level of pulmonic valve

valve which separates heart from pulmonary artery
tricuspid insufficiency
tricuspid regurgitation

abnormal incomplete closure of tricuspid valve causes blood fow backwards
tricuspid stenosis
abnormal narrowing of tricuspid valve

Inflammation of valves of heart***
MI heart attack
Myocardial infarction coronary arterie(s) occluded closed off death to myocardial tissues
complication of coronary heart disease
unstable angina
ulcerative plaque at surface of coronary artery implicated
partially or fully obstrictive trhombus may occur
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty
invasiove tech relief coronary artery stenosis obstruction
severe infaction produce
cardiogenic shock pulmonary edema
intra-aortic balloon aug of heart output as well cardiotonic agents

dobutamine dopamine diuretics
a loss rhythmos rhythm loss of rhythm greek
ARRHYTHMIAS also called dysrhythmia
they are irregular heartbeats lolss of normal rhythm of heart beat due abnormal electrsical conduction
Asinus rhythm normal state
normal heart beat
arrhythmic heart
bradycardia or flutter tachycardia
irrugularl arrhythmia
sinus arrhythmia sick sinus syndrome fibrillation heart block
contract abnormal sequence
premature atrial contrations/ventricular complexes
heart pumpl sess effectively impairing normal blood circ good oxygenatio of body cells
fatigue dizzinesss light-headedness dizzy spells fainting or near-fainting
bradycardia corrected by
implantation electronic pacemaker under skin connectoed to heart electrical wires
elec pacemak takes over from failing sinus node programmed sen electrical signal heart muscle regular interval restore normal heart beat
supraventricular tachycardia
atrial tachycardia umbrella term describes family rhythm disorder affecting atria of heart unnatrual acceleration oh heart beat
sinus tachycardia
disorder sinus node sends out electrical signals faster than usual speeding up heart rate
supraventricular tachycardia SVT paoxysmal atrial tachycardia PAT
series of early beats in atria speed up heart rate
In PAT repeated period very fast heart beats begin and end suddenly
atrial flutter
sinus node fires electrical signs rapid sequence muscles of atria contract quickly very fast steady heartbeat
atrial fibrillation
very fast uncontrolled firing electrical signals in atria signals arrive in ventricles in irregular fashion
heart does not beat reg
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome
abnormal pathway between atria and ventricles allow electrical signals arrive in ventricles too soon transmitted back into atria
very fast heart rates develop as selectrical sigs loop between atria and ventricles
ventricular tachycardia
abnormal electrical sigs arise from ventricles
cause heart too fast
symptoms palpitation feeling beats too fast and/or erratically
dizziness light-headedness fainting near-fainting
rapid heart beating sometimes controlled by
cause needs to be identified and destroyed
transcather ablation technique
electrophysiologis interventional cardiologist threads special catheter ablation catheter fitted with electrodes in heart reconrd electrical activity different points on heart wall burns defective area triggering electrical curren
ventricular fib
caused very fast uncontrolled elecdtrival sigs
arise in ventricles make heart quiver rather than beat
collapse sudden death follow iunless medical help is at hand
temp treatment arrhytmia
valsalva maneuver
person tries sexhale forcibly with closed glottis windpipe no air exits through jmouth or nose
strenous couoghing staining during bowel movement lifting heavy wight
valsalva maneuver
valsalva maneuver impedes
return of venous blood to heart occasionally corrects the arrhythmia
when blood flow and oxygen supply to heart muscle is reduced
heart attack can occur
impaired oxygen to extremeties lead to
insufficient oxygen supply to brain leads
to stroke
presence of plaque inside artery
decreases diamater and damount of blood and oxygen passing through
no atrial or ventricular rate or rhythm
under 60 beats per minute
atrial flutter contractions rapid and regular
rapid random ineffective
atrial fib AF
ventricular fib V-fib
pounding heartbeat irregular rhythm
premature atrial contraction
PAC premature atrial complexes
premature ventricular contraction
PVC premature ventricular complexes
sinoatrial arrest or block
SA arrest sinus arrest
abnormally fast over 100 bpm
paroxysmal tachycardia fast hb sudden onset
paroxysm sudden convulsion seizure spasm
common blood vessel conditions
angitis vasculitis inflammation of blood or lymph vessel

hypoperfusion decreased blood flow through organ

perfusion blood flow through an organ
narrowing of artereies deposit fatty substances

cholesterol cellular wastew products calcium and fibrin inner lining arterial walls
build-up athereosclerosis
affects coronary arteries

severe form completely occludes coronary arteries result heart attack
triggers atherosclerosis
plaque formation unknown but think innermost layer of arterial wall endothelium becomes damaged
possible causes of endothelial damage
elevated levels cholesterol triglyceride in blood

hiogh blood pressure

cigarette smoking aggravates speeds up plaque formation in coronary arteries aorta andarteries of legs
pain or discomfort in chest or adjacent areas caused by insufficient blood flow to heaert muscle
chesst pain relieved by
rest or meds within short period usually 15minutes
chest pains longer duration or pain appearing with lower level of effort even at rest shoudl be
considered unstable angina
blockages in coronary arteries
plaques prevent adequate amount of blood from reaching heart muscle
situations require increased blood flow to heart may cause angina in people with
includes exercise heavy meals and stress
balloon-like bulges in blood vessel
cerebral aneurysm arteries supply blood

aortic aneurysm pressure blood weak blood vessesl bulge thin-skinned blister
types of aneuryms
high blood pressure
smoking deep wounds
marfan syndrome
congenital condition connectivew tissuelong bones flexible joints
basic chest or stomach X-rayi ultrasound
radiological imaging (arteriographjy mRI Ct
ascending aorta upper chest
surgery right away

lower or below stomach descending and abdominal portions watched 5 cm surgery
smaller or stable aneurysms
descending or abdomial aorta check-ups
may live with aneurysms for
lowers blood pressure beta blocker
medicine relieves
stess on aortic walls
medicine lower blood pressure especially useful for
patients were risk of surgery may be greater than risk of aneurysm
red blood count hemoglobin lower than usual
protein in blood contains iron
symptoms anemia
tiredness pallor fatique palpitations shortness of breath
causes of anemia
acute sudden blood loss B12 deficiency certain cancers chemotherapy GI bleeding kidney failure heredetary disorders

Women due to menses
iron deficiency common
soft waxy substance present in all body and nervous system skin muscle liver intestines and heart
made by
body obtained from animal products in diet
liver removes
cholesterol from blood

manufactures and secretes back into blood circ
symptoms cholesterol
excess cholesterol in blood
get deposited onto arterial walls causing thick hard substance cholesterol plaque
when coronary artereies clogged by this plaque
cannot supply heart muscle with necessary blood and oxygen
chest pain
chest pain called
atherosclerotic heart disease
complete blocking of artery
cause death
high blood pressure exceeding 140/90 mmHg
systolic pressureabove 140 with diastolic pressure above 90
chronic hypertension called
silent condition
cause hypertension
untreated hypertension
cause blood vessel changes in back of eye retina
abnormal thickening of heart muscle
kidney failure
brain damage
hypertension treated with
regular exercise weight reduction salt/diet restriction
different types hypertension
essential hypertension
idiopathic hypertension malignant hypertension

secondary hypertension hypertension fromrenal disease or other identifiable cause

white coat hypertension soleoly from nervousness being near treating practioner
congenital heart disease (disorders)
umbrella term abnormality of heart present at birth 1% all children
causes CHD
hereditary factors viral infection like German Measles during pregnancy Down's syndrome drugs otc's increase risk of baby with CHD
hole in septum wall separates right and left sides of heart
defects allow blood to flow between rioght and left chambers
2 most common types septal defects
Atrial Septal Defect ASD
Ventricular Septal Defect VSD
2 variations Eisenmenger's Complex atrioventricular Canal Defect
Eiosenmenger's Complex
ventricular septal defect coupled with pulmonary high blood pressure blood flows from right side of heart to left
rioght to left shunt
atrioventricular A-V Canal Defect
septal defect right and left sides of heart where atria and ventricles meet hole in septum large involves both Aand V
tricupid and mitral valves not formed individually, fused
in babies with A-V
fused valve does not close properly
blood leaks back ward from V to A
leak called regurgitation or insiufficiency
affects right side left side or both sides of heart
forces to pump more straining leading to cardiac hypertrophy heart enlargement
Atrial septal defect ASD
congenital defect septum between 2 Atria open
oxygen+ blood from left A returns to right A
Ventricular septal defect V.S.D.
Hole in heart most common often heals spontaneously
congenital two V communicate through hole
oxygenated blood pumped by left V flows to lright V
tetralogy of Fallot
Etienne fallot combination of defects
ventricular septal defect blood right v to left v no lungs

stenosis narrowing beneath pulmonary valve blocks flow blood from right V to lungs

hypertrophied right V wall of V is thicker than normal

abnormal position of aorta sitting astride the v septal
obstruction to blood flow into lungs created by
pulmonary stenosis blood diverted through VSDto left V and aorta flow in lung circ reduced cyanosis
Transpostition of great arteries
congenital positions of pulmonary artery and aorta reversed
aorta connected to right ventricle
blue blood returns to heart flows right A to right V pumped to body through aorta no lungs
babioes with TGA
extrememly cyanotic procedure balloon atrial septostomy make a hole in A septum improves body's oxygen
coarctation of aorta
narrowing of aorta
patent ductus arteriosus
condition temporary blood vessel near fetus's heart ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth as supposed to
cardiac tumors
2 categories benign malignant
tumors of heart can be
myocardial muscle
endocardial inside heart
epicardial outsid wall
benign tumors
myxoma most common
most common
tumors beginnign in wall dividing ventricles spreading to A
often followed by arrhythmias heart failure apreading of metastasis curable by surgical removal
right atrial myxoma symptoms
chest pain tightness
prominent veins in neck
swelling of hands and fet
swelling of abdomen
shortness of breath
fainting dizziness palpitations
left atrial myxoma symptoms
chest pain tieghtness
shortness of breath
both have
ccough fever nocturia urinate at night weight and vision loss pain in joints bluish color fingers
20% all cardiac tumors most common primary pediatiric cardiac tumor no symptoms
produce obstruction to blood flow murmur arrhythmia heart failure fetal hydrops
less than 4 years spontaneous tumor regression can
benign congential disease young children one third under 6 less common than rhabdomyomas

occur on valve tissue inflammation
papillary fibroelastoma
lesioins affect cardiac valves rare but second most common benign cardiac tumor found at autopsy cardiac surgery or cardiac catheterization chest pain stroke breathing difficulties syspnea sudden death artery occlusion surgery
rare arise from righ atrium no symptoms skin hemangiomas surgery
rare any age adults surgery tumors in heart may not
lymphoma cardiac
rare heart or pericardium no extracardiac lymphoma prognosis is poor
benign solitary lesions
infants children
arise from base of heart near origin of great vessels
treatment surgery good prognosis
most common cardiac tumors
myxomas beginning in wall dividing the
ventricles ***
rhabdomyomas represent
cardiac fibroma benign under age of
papillary firoelastoma benign lesions affect cadiac
cardiac hemangiomas rare arise from right
atruim ***
cardiac lipomas very
cardiac lymphoma tumors involve only heart or
malignant cardiac tumors
25% mostly adults any heart tissues rapid ddeterioration may metastasis to spine
cardiac sarcoma
30% angiosarcomas
others rhabdomyosarcomas liposarcomas osteosarcoma leiomyosarcoma synovial sarcoma fibrosarcom

mainly in right atrium mid-adulthood result of distant metastasis poor prognosis
most common malignant 20-50 years right atrium 80% poor prog spreading of metastases to lungs
most common in children more in males
pulse points felt artery near skin over hard structure most common
radial wrist
temporal temple
carotid neck
femoral groin
brachial inner elbow
dorsalis pedis foot
During pe physician checks pulses bilaterally evaluate rate equality and uality on sclae of 0-+4 bounding
carotid and precordium inspected visually and listened to for thrills fine vibs irregular blood flow murmurs or bruits
pulse amplitude scale
0-pulse not palpable
+1pulse weak difficult to find fade in and out or disappear

+2pulse constant not strong

+3pulse considered normal easily palpable

+4pulse strong and bounding