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7 Cards in this Set

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anticoagulents (blood thinners)

though sometimes called blood thinners, anticoagulents do not actually thin blood; instead, they prevent clotting of blood.

blood flows more smoothly > decreases BP > decreases afterload > increases SV> increases CO

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

-expands blood vessels and decreases resistance by lowering angiotensin levels (which narrow blood vessels)

-inhibits renin, which reduces Na+ uptake and fluid uptake in kidneys, decreasing BP

- decreases BP > decreases afterload > increases SV> increases CO

calcium channel blockers

affects Ca+ movement into smooth muscle cells of blood vessels and dilates blood vessels

- decreases BP > decreases afterload > increases SV> increases CO


-originally derived from foxglove plant!

-increases force of heart's contractions in weakened hearts

-treat heart failure and irregular heart rhythms

-inhibits Na/K ATPase, lessening the Na+ gradient needed to pump Ca+ out of cells; more Ca+ remains in cell to pump heart muscle

-increased contractility> increased SV> increased CO


-sometimes called "water pills"

-increase kidney excretion of Na+ and water, reducing fluid in the body and decreasing blood pressure

- decreases BP > decreases afterload > increases SV> increases CO

alpha-adrenergic blocking drugs

-block alpha receptors in the autonomic nervous system; alpha receptors usually constrict blood vessels

-inhibit action of norephinephrin, which increases HR

-decreases BP > decreases afterload > increases SV> increases CO


-beta blockers block K+ channels in both cardiac muscle cells and autorhythmic cells

-in autorhythmic cells, K+ can't leave as quickly, so voltage of cells decreases less quickly (repolarizes less quickly), causing HR to decrease, decreasing CO

-in cardiac muscle cells, K+ and Ca+ are linked, and K+ flows out of cell as Ca+ flows into cell. Since K+ flows out more slowly, Ca+ flows into cell more slowly; less Ca+ in cell causes decreased contractility, and decreased SV, decreased CO