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17 Cards in this Set

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What is combustion?
A reaction between oxygenand a fuel that releases energy.
Which pollutant gases areproduced during thecombustion of fossil fuels?
Particulates, carbon dioxide,carbon monoxide, sulphurdioxide, nitrogen oxides, water.
What are theenvironmental effects ofparticulates, carbondioxide, carbon monoxide,nitrogen oxides, sulphur
Global dimming (particulatestravel into the atmosphere andreflect light back into space),global warming, suffocation, acidrain/asthma, acid rain.
Why are particulates andcarbon monoxide producedwhen petrol burns?
Sometimes insufficient oxygenis available which meansincomplete combustion occursinside the engine.
Why are nitrogen oxidesproduced during thecombustion of petrol?
Nitrogen and oxygen from theair react inside the combustionengine due to the very hightemperatures inside the engine.
How are carbon dioxideand sulphur dioxide producedwhen fossil fuels burn?
Carbon dioxide is producedfrom complete combustion ofhydrocarbons. Some fossil fuelscontain sulphur. This reacts withoxygen during combustion toform sulphur dioxide.
How are harmfulsubstances removed from carexhaust fumes?
By fitting cars with catalyticconverters. Carbon monoxide isconverted to carbon dioxide,nitrogen oxides are converted tonitrogen and oxygen, andparticulates are converted tocarbon dioxide and water.
What are biofuels?
Fuels that are made fromplant or animal products.
What is crude oil?
A mixture of differenthydrocarbons.
What is a hydrocarbon?
A compound made ofhydrogen and carbon ONLY.
Describe how thedifferent hydrocarbons incrude oil are separated.
Crude oil is heated.

Some of the hydrocarbonsturn into vapour while othersremain a liquid.


The liquid flowsto the bottom of the fractionatingtower, the vapours rise up thetower.


The temperaturedecreases as you rise up thetower. As the vapours cool theycondense and are piped off.


Some vapours don’t condenseand rise out of the top of thetower.

What is a fraction?
A mixture of hydrocarbonswith similar chain length andboiling points.
What are the products offractional distillation ofcrude oil?
Refinery gases, petrol,naphtha kerosene, diesel oil, fueloil, lubricating oil, bitumen
What are the products offractional distillation ofcrude oil used for?
Refinery gases for campinggas, petrol as car fuel, naphthaas a chemical feedstock,kerosene as jet fuel, diesel oil aslorry fuel, fuel oil to heat houses,lubricating oil as engine oil,bitumen for road surfacing.
What are alkanes?
Saturated hydrocarbons withthe general formula CnH2n+2.
Name the first 5 alkanesand give their formula.
Methane CH4

Ethane C2H6


Propane C3H8


Butane C4H10


Pentane C5H12

What are alkenes?
Unsaturated hydrocarbonswith the general formula CnH2n