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42 Cards in this Set

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On The Job/Off The Job Training

On-the-job training occurs when employees need to learn a specific set of skills to perform particular tasks in the workplace. This training occurs within the work environment, using resources available within the workplace, whereas off-the-job training is when training is conducted away from the workplace and is usually conducted by external, specialist training institutes.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

A needs based theory based on 5 levels of human needs starting with physiological – pay, safety – job security and safe working environment, social – teamwork and sense of belonging, esteem – rewards and training and self-actualisation – career advancement, and challenging + interesting work. Maslow states that each need must be fulfilled in order starting with lower order need and moving up the hierarchy to higher order needs. Once they're fulfilled, they no longer act as a motivator.

Locke and Latham’s Goal-Setting Theory

A goal setting theory which states that motivation can be achieved by managers working with staff to set clear, challenging goals that are in line with organisational goals. Managers must also support staff in the achievement of goals by providing training and feedback regarding the attainment of goals.

Lawrence and Nohria’s Four Drives Theory

A drive-based theory revolving around four key conceptual needs - the need to Acquire, to Bond, to Comprehend and to Defend. The drive to acquire includes the need to own material goods, and encompasses the desire for status, power and influence. The drive to bond includes the strong need to form relationships with other individuals and groups. The drive to comprehend includes our desire to satisfy our curiosity, to learn new skills and to explore the world around us. The passive drive to defend includes the desire to remove threats to our safety and security and to protect what we regard as “ours”.


When an employee decides to give up full-time or part-time work and no longer be a part of the workforce.


The voluntary ending of employment by the employee “quitting” their job to move on to another position elsewhere.

Whenever a business wants to downsize, it will not fill the vacancies that have come about due to retirements or resignations.


When a person's job no longer exists, usually due to technological changes, a business restructure or a merger or acquisition. It can be voluntary via informing employees of the situation and giving them the opportunity to nominate themselves for voluntary redundancy. It can be involuntary when the employee is asked to leave the business against their will; the employee is not at fault, the decision to make them redundant is purely based on the ongoing needs of the business.


When a business dismisses an employee because there is not enough work to justify paying them.


When the behaviour of an employee is unacceptable/illegal and the business terminates their employment.


Someone who works for a business and expects to be paid fairly, trained properly and treated ethically in return for their contribution to production.


A legally binding agreement that sets out minimum wages and conditions for employees across an industry.


A form of penalty or punishment (expand with the forms).


The confidential discussion of issues in a non-threatening environment, in the presence of a neutral, objective third-party. Many businesses now specify mediation as a first step in their dispute resolution or grievance procedures.


A process that occurs when a “judge” (such as a commissioner of the FWC) hears both arguments in a dispute in a more formal court-like setting and determines the outcome/makes a legally binding ruling.


The individual, internal process that directs, energises and sustains an employee.

Human Resource Management

The effective management of the formal relationship between the employer and employees.

Human Resource Manager

Coordinates all the activities involved in acquiring, developing, maintaining and terminating employees from a business’s human resources.


Activities that prepare staff to take on greater responsibility in the future.


A measure of performance that indicates how many inputs (resources) it takes to produce an output (goods or services). How effective and efficient the employees are.


An amount paid for accomplishing a sale, paid to the salesperson who accomplished the sale, and usually calculated as a fixed percentage of the sale price.

Collective/Enterprise Agreement

A negotiated agreement between an employer and a union or group of employees.

Employer Associations

Organisations that represent and assist employer groups.

Common Law Individual (Employment) Contract

Employees who are not under any award or collective/enterprise agreements.

Trade Union

Groups formed by employees in an industry, trade or occupation to represent them in efforts to improve wages and the working conditions of their members.

Fair Work Commission (FWC)

A body to deal with the resolution of industrial disputes, and to act as an independent umpire in setting minimum wages and employment standards.

Grievance Procedure

Employee and/or representative present complaint to supervisor. Dissatisfaction?

Complaint is handled by middle management in meeting with employee and/or representative. Dissatisfaction?

Meeting of employee and/or representative with top management representative and/or grievance committee. Dissatisfaction?

Matter referred to external conciliation or arbitration by parties involved.

Performance Management

A focus on improving both business and individual performance through relating business performance objectives to individual employee performance objectives.

Performance Appraisal

The formal appraisal of how efficiently and effectively an employee is performing their role in the business.


The process of teaching staff how to do their job more efficiently and effectively by boosting their knowledge and skills.

Workplace Relations

The interaction between an employers, and their representative, and the employee, and their representative, in regards to the establishment and maintenance of pay and working conditions as well as settling grievances.

The Employment Cycle

Establishment Phase

Maintenance Phase

Termination Phase

Establishment Phase

Staff planning in line with business strategy.

Job analysis and job design.



Employment arrangements and remuneration.

Maintenance Phase


Training and development.

Performance management.

Termination Phase

Termination management - retirement, redundancy, resignation and dismissal.

Entitlement and transition issues.

Entitlement and Transition Issues

Providing necessary information to the employee being made redundant or retrenched, a consultation process, time off leading up to the final day when the employee leaves and organising redundancy pay (severance pay). Ethical employers may take responsibility in helping employees find new employment.

Essay Method

A manager keeps a journal on each employee being appraised. Notes may be restricted to specific aspects of job performance, such as customer service, sales, personal presentation and cash register use.

Critical Incident Method

This is similar to the essay method except the manager records only exceptionally good or bad aspects of work performance reviewing an abnormal/unplanned event. Cannot happen unless a critical incident has occurred.

Comparison Method

Each employee is ranked according to a list of predetermined performance characteristics. This method often incorporates statistical values as a means of measurement. The scale may be used to assess knowledge, speed, accuracy, communication, interpersonal skills, oral and written skills, personal presentation and administration techniques.

Management By Objectives

It is a process by which management and employees agree on a set of S.M.A.R.T goals for each employee, with these individual goals all contributing to the objectives of the business as a whole.

Process of Management By Objectives

1. Business objectives are clearly defined.

2. Individual employee goals are negotiated.

3. Regular monitoring of progress.

4. Performance feedback - allows corrective action.

5. Performance appraisal on achievement of goals.

Employee Self-Evaluation

Involves employees carrying out a process of self-assessment, based on a set of agreed criteria. Employee self-evaluation can also highlight the need for training, and allows employees to request training opportunities to assist them to improve work performance and productivity. Employees undertaking self-evaluation should also be encouraged to keep documentary evidence for that evaluation.

Employee Observation

Useful to seek a variety of opinions on the performance of employees. The aim is to get feedback from a variety of different parties in order to arrive at a more comprehensive image of past and current performance. The idea is to identify strengths and weaknesses, and the broad range of observations from a variety of different employees can provide a comprehensive picture of employee performance.