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13 Cards in this Set

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HR Planning

right people right skills


It is difficult to put into place meaningful HRplanning systems because the work environment at the moment is subject to somuch change.

HR is about people! It is often viewed negatively, seen as a way to getrid of people.

HR planning is critical to strategyin 4 ways: there is a gap in capabilities -- not having skilled people.

there is a surplus in capabilities.

poor utilisation of people.

critical to sustaining competitiveadvantage.

developing a talent pool.

Traditional manpower planning hasbeen criticised as being about the numbers, not about skills of workers and theincreasing need to plan for the softer issues of employee behaviour.

Contracts of employment
Working patterns are changing – contracts needto change to accommodate this. See
reorganise work

over time

sub contract

agency workers

job description and personspecification.

recruitment advertising


recruiting overseas

employer branding

Application forms

Self-assessment and peer assessment Telephone interviewing

Testing: aptitude, general intelligence tests, attainment tests, special aptitude tests and personality tests.

Group selection methods and assessment centres

work sampling – portfolios ð References

Individual learning
Performace management / appraisal 360 degrees feedback

In human resources or industrial psychology, 360-degree feedback is feedback that comes from members of an employee's immediate work circle. Most often, 360-degree feedback will include direct feedback from an employee's subordinates, peers (colleagues), and supervisor(s), as well as a self-evaluation

Strategic aspects of reward

Objectives of employer

attract the right staff

retain staff

motivate staff

enhance corporate reputation


Objectives of employees

purchasing power - buy share


recognition ð

composition (i.e. the makeup of the pay packet, o’time vs. standard pay) pay bands

Strategic aspects of development

Supply-led trainingrelies on predicting what training may be needed in the future,

Demand-led trainingmeans that the suppliers of training response to demand,




line managers




Perspectives on learning and development
Behaviourist Perspective -- concentrate on changes in observable behaviour, reward or punishment follows depending on behaviour. Those conducting the training are not interested in how the receiver may be feeling but are simply trying to get them to learn a particular routine.

Cognitive Perspective -- this concerns information processing and hence is concerned with what is going on in the learner's head as they are learning.

Social Learning Perspective -- learning is a social activity based on the human need to fit in.

Constructivist Perspective --this develops the information processing perspective but does not regardlearning as a neutral process, our own perceptions of this experience count andcan affect the way in which we learn. Learning is a very personal thing and weall develop mechanisms to cope with what many see as a very negativeexperience.

Employee relations
Union membership

Single – multi employer bargaining

Role of government

Adversarial vs. consensus

Management style

Careerand work life balance

New terms have been developed to describe the way careers by changing: ð in equity in the roles for which flexibility can beoffered, for example administrative staff and portfolio career (Handy)ð boundaryless career (Arthur et al)

Thedrivers for work life balance: ð women wishing to re-enter the workforce andmanagement family and careerð older workers financially may need to remain inwork after retirement ageð employers need to make themselves attractive in atightening labour marketð greater flexibility is needed to cope with the 24/7culture, this offers opportunities for work-life balanceð changes in the work environment have increasedstress in the workplace leading many to question their own work-life balance

Work-life balance practices focus onflexibility in the workplace, in terms of the hours worked, over when thosehours are worked and over the location of work itself. ð Options for achieving work life balance include:ð part-time hoursð flexi-timeð Job shareð working from homeð unpaid leave/sabbaticals

Barriersto and problems with work-life balance practices: ð flexibility is simply not availableð employers fail to have a strategic approach towork-life balanceadoctor.

Example a:
Organisations use a number of different systems to manage the performance of employees. Outline the key elements of a performance management system, including the mechanisms that might be used to assess an individual employee’s performance. Critically evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of performance management approaches, drawing on examples from an organisation you are familiar with.


When staffing the organisation, managers may choose either to recruit new staff or to change the tasks that existing employees undertake. Discuss the features of each approach and their advantages and disadvantages for both the employer and current employees. Ensure that you illustrate your answer with examples from one or more organisations with which you are familiar.

Employment security and internal labour markets

Selective hiring and sophisticated selection■

Extensive training, learning and development■ Employee involvement, information sharing and worker voice■ Self-managed teams/teamworking■ High compensation contingent on performance■ Reduction of status differentials/harmonisation